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Ancient Rome

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Cause of First Punic War
264 BC- Carthage threatened to seize Straits of Messina
Cause of Second Punic War
Hannibal, general of Carthaginian army in Spain, captured Sargantum, ally of Rome
Cause of Third Punic War
Rome attacked Carthage 146 BC and burned it to the ground
Result of the First Punic War
Carthage lost Sicily and paid an indemnity
Result of the Second Punic War
Carthaginians gave up their land in Spain, warships, and paid indemnity
Result of the Third Punic War
The Carthaginians were sold into slavery
and their fields were salted (so the legend goes)
People of the Second Punic War
Scipio and Hannibal
Pax Romana
Professional soldiers, 4,000 mile border, increased trade, increase standard of living, family not as important, fewer children, more rights for women, fewer rich, more middle class and poor.
Roman opposition to Christianity
*Christians said it was the only true religion, that the emperor is NOT god, and they wouldn't serve in military.
Twelve Tables
The first written laws; given by Patricians to Plebeians in 451 B.C.
Barbarians
The name the Romans gave to the Germanic Tribes because the Germanic language sounded like unintelligible babble to the Romans
Paul
Won many new Christian converts through his travels and writings
Peter
Founded the church in Rome
Plebeians
The lower class of Rome
Theodosius
Made Christianity the official religion in A.D. 392
Julius Caesar
Known for the following: Stability and growth
Less debt
Limited the number of Romans who got free bread
Replaced dishonest governors
Building projects
Citizenship for non-Romans
Calendar
Reforms of Augustus Caesar
Patron of the arts
Limited Proconsul power in the provinces
Tax collectors replaced with public employees
Imported grain
New roads
Many buildings
Bread & Circuses
Free entertainment for the public- mostsly gladiator fights
6 Steps of the Economic Spiral of Doom
Raise soldiers wages, tax landowners, farming doesn't pay, landowners abandon land, less land, food costs more...
Economic Reforms of Diocletian
Edict of Prices, farmers couldn't leave their land, and workers had the same job forever.
Economic Reforms of Constantine
Landowners could chain their workers
Jobs became hereditary
Causes of the Fall of the Roman Empire
Political instability
Economic decline
Unsuccessful reforms
Barbarian invasions
What survived the collapse of the Roman Empire?
Latin language, Roman law, and the Christian Church
The Latins
The group that overthrew the Etruscans
Constantinople
The city that was originally Byzantium
Brutus and Cassius
Caesar's assassins
The Huns
A central Asian group led by Attila
Marcus Aurelius
A "Good Emperor" whose death marked the end of the Pax Romana
Remus & Romulus
The legendary twins that gave Rome its name
Hannibal
The famous Carthaginian general that fought with elephants in the Punic Wars.
Venus
The goddess that was like Aphrodite to the Greeks
The Talmud
The book of Jewish law
Legionaries
A group of Roman soldiers
The Julio-Claudians
Emperors from 14-68.
Sicily
Island southwest of Italy and site of one of the Punic wars
Scipio
Lured Hannibal back to Africa by attacking Carthage
Patricians
The Roman upper class
Rubicon River
The boundary that marked a point of no return; Caesar crossed it and started a civil war
Odoacer
A German soldier that declared himself king of Rome in 476 A.D.
Augustine
A Christian scholar from North Africa that wrote many books.
Etruscans
Early people that built Rome
Hadrian
Roman emperor that built walls to protect the empire
Octavian
The other name of Augustus Caesar
Constantine
Saw a "sign" in battle and then, as emperor, adopted Christianity.
The first Triumvirate
Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus
Augustus
The title taken by the first Roman emperor
Alaric
The Visigoth chief who captured Rome in 410 A.D.
Jesus of Nazareth
The "messiah" of Christianity
Tribunes
Representatives of the Plebeians
Edict of Prices
Program designed to solve the inflation problem by freezing wages and setting maximum wages.