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Cause of First Punic War

264 BC- Carthage threatened to seize Straits of Messina

Cause of Second Punic War

Hannibal, general of Carthaginian army in Spain, captured Sargantum, ally of Rome

Cause of Third Punic War

Rome attacked Carthage 146 BC and burned it to the ground

Result of the First Punic War

Carthage lost Sicily and paid an indemnity

Result of the Second Punic War

Carthaginians gave up their land in Spain, warships, and paid indemnity

Result of the Third Punic War

The Carthaginians were sold into slavery
and their fields were salted (so the legend goes)

People of the Second Punic War

Scipio and Hannibal

Pax Romana

Professional soldiers, 4,000 mile border, increased trade, increase standard of living, family not as important, fewer children, more rights for women, fewer rich, more middle class and poor.

Roman opposition to Christianity

*Christians said it was the only true religion, that the emperor is NOT god, and they wouldn't serve in military.

Twelve Tables

The first written laws; given by Patricians to Plebeians in 451 B.C.


The name the Romans gave to the Germanic Tribes because the Germanic language sounded like unintelligible babble to the Romans


Won many new Christian converts through his travels and writings


Founded the church in Rome


The lower class of Rome


Made Christianity the official religion in A.D. 392

Julius Caesar

Known for the following: Stability and growth
Less debt
Limited the number of Romans who got free bread
Replaced dishonest governors
Building projects
Citizenship for non-Romans

Reforms of Augustus Caesar

Patron of the arts
Limited Proconsul power in the provinces
Tax collectors replaced with public employees
Imported grain
New roads
Many buildings

Bread & Circuses

Free entertainment for the public- mostsly gladiator fights

6 Steps of the Economic Spiral of Doom

Raise soldiers wages, tax landowners, farming doesn't pay, landowners abandon land, less land, food costs more...

Economic Reforms of Diocletian

Edict of Prices, farmers couldn't leave their land, and workers had the same job forever.

Economic Reforms of Constantine

Landowners could chain their workers
Jobs became hereditary

Causes of the Fall of the Roman Empire

Political instability
Economic decline
Unsuccessful reforms
Barbarian invasions

What survived the collapse of the Roman Empire?

Latin language, Roman law, and the Christian Church

The Latins

The group that overthrew the Etruscans


The city that was originally Byzantium

Brutus and Cassius

Caesar's assassins

The Huns

A central Asian group led by Attila

Marcus Aurelius

A "Good Emperor" whose death marked the end of the Pax Romana

Remus & Romulus

The legendary twins that gave Rome its name


The famous Carthaginian general that fought with elephants in the Punic Wars.


The goddess that was like Aphrodite to the Greeks

The Talmud

The book of Jewish law


A group of Roman soldiers

The Julio-Claudians

Emperors from 14-68.


Island southwest of Italy and site of one of the Punic wars


Lured Hannibal back to Africa by attacking Carthage


The Roman upper class

Rubicon River

The boundary that marked a point of no return; Caesar crossed it and started a civil war


A German soldier that declared himself king of Rome in 476 A.D.


A Christian scholar from North Africa that wrote many books.


Early people that built Rome


Roman emperor that built walls to protect the empire


The other name of Augustus Caesar


Saw a "sign" in battle and then, as emperor, adopted Christianity.

The first Triumvirate

Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus


The title taken by the first Roman emperor


The Visigoth chief who captured Rome in 410 A.D.

Jesus of Nazareth

The "messiah" of Christianity


Representatives of the Plebeians

Edict of Prices

Program designed to solve the inflation problem by freezing wages and setting maximum wages.

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