Statements that are logically false, but which appear to be true. Basically, an error in reasoning.
When the person presenting an argument is attacked instead of the argument itself (against the person).
Ad Hominem Example
Person A: I think that the US will come out of this recession quickly. Person B: What do you know about economics? You don't even have a job!
Appeal to Emotions
When something is associated with good/bad feelings, then it must be true/wrong (manipulates people's emotions)
Appeal to Emotions Example
A commercial comes on the TV asking for money to help remove animals from abusive homes and shows a slide show of cute kittens and puppies.
Either A or B is true. C is not an option. This is based on the assumption that the choices offered are the only choices.
Appeal to the People
Uses the views of the majority as a persuasive device (very similar to bandwagon).
Appeal to the People Example
"Of course you want to buy Zest toothpaste. Why, 90% of America brushes with Zest!"
Creates fear in people as evidence to support a claim. Mostly this is done by some form of threat.
Wrongly assumes a cause-and-effect relationship ('A' causes 'B' without proof that a relationship actually exists).
False Cause Example
Christians believe in God. Muslims believe in God. Therefore, Christians are Muslims.
Draws a conclusion about a population based on a small sample (jumping to conclusions).
Hasty Generalization Example
I met some students from Fort Riley yesterday, who were very polite. I think all children from that area must be well-behaved.
Presents an irrelevant topic to divert attention away from the original issue. The logic follows this form: Topic A is under discussion. Topic B is introduced under the assumption that it's related. Topic A is abandoned.
This occurs when it is assumed that something is better or correct simply because it is traditional or "has always been done"
Traditional Wisdom Example
The theory that witches and demons cause disease is far older than the theory that microrganisms cause diseases. Therefore, the theory about witches and demons must be true.
Uses attractive, but vague, words that embody ideals such as: freedom, fame, justice, respect. This technique seeks to evoke emotions without making any commitments.