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group opposed to big gov., New Deal liberalism, gun control, feminism, gay rights, welfare, affirmative action, sexual permissiveness, abortion, and drug use, which, in their view, were responsible for undermining family and religious values, the work ethic, & national security

taxpayer's revolt

(1978) CA tax payers led a revolt against high taxees by passing proposition 13

proposition 13

a measure passed by taxpayer's revolt that sharply cut property taxes

arthur laffer's

conservatives promoted his belief that tax cuts would promote economic growth

Jack Kemp & William Roth

proposed legislation to reduce federal taxes by 30%; was the basis for the reagan tax cuts

Regents of the university of CA v. bakke

decided that college admissions could not be based on race alone. conservatives intensified their campaign to end all quotes and preferential treatment based on race & ethnic background

election of 1980

Reagan v. Carter. Reagan wins. broke up New Deal. republicans gained control of the senate for first time since 1954.

misery index

rate of inflation to the rate of unemployment

reagan administration

advocated supply-side economics arguing that tax cuts reduced gov. spending, would increase investment by the private sector, and lead to increased production, jobs and prosperity

federal tax reduction

congress passed most tac cuts reagan asked for, including a 25% decrease in personal income taxes over 3 years. tax rate reduced to 28%


young urban professionals

sandra day O connor

the first woman on the supreme court

william rehnquist

a new chief justice scaled back affirmative action in hiring and promotions limited roe v. wade

election of 1984

modale v reagan. reagan wins -jesse jackson- first african american to run for presidency -- geraldine ferraro - first woman to run for vice president

Gramm-Rudman Holdings balanced budget act

passed in effort to keep the federal deficit under control. provided for across the board spending cuts


changed the debate to issues of what gov. programs to cut & by how much

caspar weinberger

secretary of defense projected a doubling of the defense budget. proposed spending billions to build new weapon systems & to expand US navy from 450-600 ships

strategic defense initiative

SDI an ambitious plan for building a high tech system of lasers and particle beams to destroy enemy missiles before they could reach US territory


received large amounts of military aid. antileftist rebels in nicaragua who fought the sandinistas in an attempt to seize power

boland amendment

democrats opposed to the administrations policies in nicaragua passed this to prohibit further aid to the contras

iran-contra affair

robert mcfarland came up with the secret plan of selling US antitank and antiaircraft missiles to Irans gov. for its help in freeing the americans held hostage by arabs. oliver north proposed using profits of arm deal with iran to fund the contra in nicaragua

reagan's foreign policy

in the middle east Israel, with US approval invaded southern lebanon to stop PLO terrorists from raiding israel. US became involved helping PLO. Arab suicide squad bombed US embassy in beirut killing 63 people. Arab terrorist drove a bomb-filled truck into the US marine barracks killing 241 servicemen

george schultz

pushed for a peaceful settlement of the palestinian-israeli conflict by setting up a homeland for PLO in the west bank territories occupied by israel. PLO leader (yassir arafat) agreed to recognize Israels right to exist

mikhail gorbachev

new soviet leader who attempted to change soviet domestic politics by introducing to major reforms glasnost & perestroika


openness to end political repression & move toward a greater political freedom for soviet citizens


restructuring of the soviet economy by introducing free-market practices

INF agreement

gorbachev & reagan agreed to remove and destroy all intermediate-range missiles

george bush 1

a former ambassador to the UN & director of CIA became 1st president to define US role in the new era

election of 1988

democrat- michael dukakis republican - george bush -- bush wins

tiananmen square

prodemocracy students demonstrated for freedon in beijings tiananmen square. chinese communist gov. crushed the protests with tanks. killed hundreds

boris yeltsin

president of russian republic who joined with the nine former soviet republics to form a loose confederation - commonwealth of independent states (CIS)

START1 agreement

(1991) bush & gorbashev signed this. reduced the # of warheads to under 10000 for each side

START2 treaty

(1992) reduced the number of nuclear weapons to just over 3000 each

Invasion of panama

to remove autocratic general manuel noriega to stop him from using his country as a drug pipeline to US

persian gulf war

1991, a war fought between a coalition led by the United States and Iraq to free Kuwait from Iraqi invaders (saddam hussein)

desert storm

name given to the operation to liberate Kuwait. The operation was a success, Kuwait was liberated and Iraq defeated.

clarence thomas

strict critic of affirmative action. nominated by George H. W. Bush to be on Supreme Court replacing thurgood marshall, was accused of sexual harassment. the second African American to hold a seat in the Supreme Court.

americans with disabilities act

prohibited discrimination with physical and mental disabilities in hiring, transportation, and public accommodation

27th amendment

prohibited members of congress from raising their own salaries. future raises could not go into effect until the next session of congress

bill clinton

42nd President advocated economic and healthcare reform; second president to be impeached

ross perot

This billionaire was a third-party candidate in the 1992 presidential election won 19 percent of the popular vote. His strong showing that year demonstrated voter disaffection with the two major parties.

north american free trade agreement

created a free-trade zone with canada and mexico

newt gingrich

after the disagreement in the federal government over the budget between Republican leaders and the president, Public opinion turned quickly and powerfully against the Republican leadership and against much of its agenda. This controversial Republican Speaker of the House, quickly became one of the most unpopular political leaders in the nation, while President Clinton slowly improved his standing in the polls.

contract with america

In the 1994 congressional elections, Congressman Newt Gingrich had Republican candidates sign a document in which they pledged their support for such things as a balanced budget amendment, term limits for members of Congress, and a middle-class tax cut.

new world order

commonly refers to the post-Cold War era vision in which world affairs would not be dominated by the competition between the two nuclear superpowers; a positive and hopeful vision for the future.

bob dole

Senator from Kansas; challenged Clinton for presidency in 1996

madeleine albright

first female US Secretary of State

ethnic cleansing

the mass expulsion and killing of one ethic or religious group in an area by another ethnic or religious group in that area

nuclear proliferation

the spread of nuclear weapons to new nations

george w bush

43rd president of the US who began a campaign toward energy self-sufficiency and against terrorism in 2001

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