Intro to HRM Exam 1

What are the components of Management?
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What would be an example of a staff employee?Janitor, Accountant at a bakery, Lawn service for a car dealership, etc.Give a description of a HR Generalist.Someone who has broad knowledge in a variety of areas.Give a description of a HR Specialist.Someone who has in-depth knowledge about one area (Training, Payroll, etc.)Give a description of a HR Consultant.An outside party hired by an organization to come in and help with their HR systemsWhat are the key responsibilities of HRM?Development, Implementation, Maintenance of HR systems, Internal Consulting, Coaching, and CounselingWhat is Internal Consulting?Dealing with problem employeesWhat is a Human Resource Strategy?Deliberate use of HR to help it gain or maintain an edge against competitors; grand plan that's supposed to make a company efficient and accomplish goalsWhat is a Human Resource Tactic?A particular policy or program to help advance a firm toward its HR strategyBetween a HR Strategy and HR Tactic, which one is more specific?HR TacticWhat does "SWOT" stand for in "SWOT Analysis?"Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities ThreatsWhat parts of the SWOT Analysis are involved in the analysis of the external environment?Opportunities & ThreatsWhat parts of the SWOT Analysis are involved in the analysis of the internal environment?Strengths & WeaknessesWhat is the difference between and Organizational Mission and an Organization Vision?OM: answers the question "Who are we?" OV: answers the question "Who do we want to be?"What is the SWOT Analysis?A strategic management tool that analyzes the environmental challenges versus the organizational challengesWhat are some trends in the demographics of the US workforce that make it more diverse?34% are minorities, the number of women in the workforce is increasing, approximately 76% of employed men have employed wives, and women with children under the age of 6 entering the workforce is increasingWhat are organizational challenges?Concerns or problems internal to a firm; often a by-product of environmental forcesWhat are some examples of organizational challenges?Equipment or technology inefficiency, training inefficiency, etc.What are environmental challenges?Challenges that are external to the company that affect the performance of a firm, but are beyond the control of managementWhat are some examples of environmental challenges?Legislation changes, natural disasters, skill shortages, rise of service sector, etc.What are the two huge events that caused a dramatic change in the workforce by creating a worldwide company culture, enabling worldwide recruiting, and providing a virtual workforce?Internet Revolution and GlobalizationWhat is the difference between private-sector and public-sector organizations?Private: not owned by the government Public: Governmental sectorWhat are some examples of the private sector?Privately held companies such as mom and pop shops, 401k, stock exchange, etc.What are some examples of the public sector?Social Security office, DMV, etc.Why are companies increasingly offering "family friendly" programs?There are more dual career couples in the workforce now; in order to give their firm a competitive advantage in the labor marketWhat are some examples of the "family friendly" programs that are being offered?Adoption benefits, child care, elder-care resources, parenting support, teleworkExplain how the growth of the service sector may pose a problem in terms of finding qualified employees to fill jobs.Many of the available workers are unskilled to fill the vacant jobs, and many companies have to provide basic training to compensate for the shortcomings of public education; In the service sector you have to try and find certain knowledge that's very difficult to trainWhat is decentralization?The transferring of responsibility and decision-making authority from a central office to people and locations closer to the situation that demands attentionWhat is downsizing?A reduction in a company's workforce to improve its bottom lineWhat does the organizational structure show?The informal and formal structure between people within an organizationWhat has been the trend in terms of organizational structure over the past two decades?Tall organizations that started with a lot of levels of management have become "flatter" as the number of employees is reduced. Mergers and acquisitions have also become more prevalent which has helped with spreading costs and risksWhat are the two main types of decision making?Centralized and DecentralizedWhat are the characteristics of centralized decision making?Decisions are made by a central source of the organization; Decisions come from the top of the organizationWhat are the characteristics of decentralized decision making?Decisions are made at lower levels of the organization; Decisions come from multiple/ variety of sourcesWhat are the 3 types of managers?Top Managers Middle Managers First-Line ManagersWhat are some examples of Top Managers?CEO, COO, CFO, President, etc.What is the role of the Middle Managers?Implement plans given from Top ManagersWhat are some examples of Middle Managers?Regional Managers, Departmental Managers, Branch Managers, etc.What is the role of the First-Line Managers?Deal with the day-to-day operations and problem employeesWhat are some examples of First-Line Managers?Supervisors, Foremen, or Section Leads, etc.What is organizational culture?Shared benefits and values in an organization (the personality of the organization); the habits (ex. all employees eat lunch together)What is telecommuting?Working remote, off-site, or from home because the technology is easier to store, retrieve, and analyzeWhat is the issue of unethical use of data?When a firm is in the process of hiring they can assess an applicant by accessing a huge number of databases containing information on credit files, work history, driving records, health reports, criminal records, and family makeup. Depending on what is found, they can be cut, and often times those who are affected are unaware of the process and do not have a chance to provide an explanation even though some times the data retrieved may not be accurate; Companies now have to protect their informationWhat is empowerment?Providing workers with the skills and authority to make decisions that would traditionally be made by managers; Trading powers from high levels to low levelsGive an example of empowerment.At a restaurant, a meal is served wrong and the server offers you a free dessert (the server becomes empowered)What is brain drain?The loss of high-talent key personnel to competitors or start-up ventures (employee theft)What is turnover?The rate at which employees leave a firm and are replacedWhat is a corporate strategy?The mix of business a corporation decides to hold and the flow of resources among those businessesGive an example of a firm that uses corporate strategy.GAP Inc.What is business unit strategy?The formulation and implementation of strategies by a firm that is relatively autonomous, even if it is part of a larger corporationGive an example or examples of firms that use business unit strategy.Old Navy, Banana Republic, GAP (all subunits of GAP Inc.)What are Porter's Business Unit Strategies?Cost-Leadership Differentiation FocusWhat is the Cost-Leadership strategy?Where a company gains a competitive advantage by having the lowest costs in their industry (ex. Walmart)What is Differentiation?Where a company gains a competitive advantage by offering a unique product at a higher/premium priceWhat is the Focus strategy?Where a company focuses on providing a product or service in a more narrow marketWhat were Miles and Snow's Business Strategies?Defenders and ProspectorsWhat are Defenders?Firms that hold onto their market share; the know what they do, they do it well, and try to improve what they have (efficiency-wise); sometimes are forced to change in order to stay or hold onto their shareWhat is the HR Structure like in Defenders?It is very formalized in that they know where they need to hire and how to do itWhat are Prospectors?Firms that are more innovative and willing to take risks; Willing to change productsWhat is the HR Structure like in Prospectors?It is more flexible because by making new products that didn't exist they need fresh mindsWhat is workflow?The way work is organized to meet the organization's production or service goalsWhat are some of the characteristics of a bureaucratic organizational structure?Top-down management approach with many levels of management; hierarchical career pat within one function, highly specialized jobs, narrowly specified job descriptions, rigid boundaries between jobs & units; employees or individuals working independently; centralized structureDescribe a flat organizational structure.Decentralized structure with few levels of management; horizontal career paths that cross functions; broadly defined jobs, general job descriptions, flexible boundaries between jobs and units, emphasis on teams strong focus on the customer.What is a boundaryless organizational structure?Joint ventures with customers, suppliers, and competitors; emphasis on teams whose members may cross organizational boundaries; shares many characteristics of flat organizational structureWhat is an example of a boundaryless organizational structure?Pixar and Disney working on Cars, Toy Story, Finding Nemo, etc.What is a team?Small numbers of people with complementary skills who work toward common goals for which they hold themselves mutually accountableWhat are self-managed teams?Team that are responsible for producing an entire product, a component, or an ongoing service; autonomy and freedom are huge allowing for more empowermentWhat is a virtual team?A team that relies on interactive technology to work together when separated by physical distanceWhy do organizations use teams in the workplace?In order to be more productive and establish connections; performance on a team usually out-performs that of an individualWhat are two main problems with teams?Freeriding GroupthinkWhat is freeriding?When an individual is slacking or doesn't do their share of the workWhat is groupthink?When people are afraid of speaking up and just go with whatever the group wants to do; overall performance of the group suffers because people don't value their ideasWhat are the 4 theories of motivation?Two-Factor Theory Goal-Setting Theory Job Characteristics Theory Justice TheoryIs there a specific theory that is better than the others?It all depends on the situation itselfWho came up with the Two-Factor Theory?HerzbergWhat does the Two-Factor Theory attempt to do?Identify and explain the factors that employees find satisfying and dissatisfying about their jobsWhat are the two factors of the Two-Factor Theory?Motivators & Hygiene/MaintenanceWhat are Motivators?Internal job factors that lead to job satisfaction and higher motivation; they increase satisfactionWhat is Hygiene/Maintenance?External factors to a job that are located in the work environment; they lessen dissatisfactionWhat are some examples of Motivators?Vacation, Challenging Work, Recognition, etc.What are some examples of Hygiene/Maintenance?Pay, physical working conditions, etc.What is the HR Implication behind Motivators?HR needs to put people in a job that is a good fit for themWhat is the HR Implication behind Hygiene/Maintenance?HR needs to make sure that compensation is appropriateWhat does the Goal Setting Theory imply?By setting goals, performance improvesWhat are the 3 parts of the Goal Setting Theory in relation to the employees?In order to "work," employees need -goals that are challenging but not impossible -a specific measurable goal (not "do you best") -feedback on progress (makes the employee aware of adjustments that need to be made)What is job design?The process of organizing work into the tasks required to perform a specific job; how tasks help organize workEmployees ____________ work in their company's in hopes of making it more efficient.RedesignWhat is the Job Characteristics Theory and what are its components?A theory of job design; 5 core job characteristics, 3 critical psychological states (how you feel and how you think), and personal/work outcomesWhat are the 5 core job characteristics in the Job Characteristics Theory?Skill Variety Task Identity Task Significance Autonomy Feedback from JobWhat is Skill Variety?The number of skills required to do a job (when it's low, employees get bored)What is Task Identity?The extent to which you produce a whole identifiable product (when it's low, employees don't fill as fulfilled)What is Task Significance?The extent to which you feel like your job mattersWhat is Autonomy?The extent to which you have freedom in determining how your job is done (the higher the more fulfilling)What does Feedback from Job do for an employee?It makes them aware of when or if they need to adjustWhat are the 3 psychological states in the Job Characteristics Theory?Experienced meaningfulness of work Experienced responsibility for outcomes of work Knowledge of the actual results of work activityWhat are some of the ideal outcomes in the Job Characteristics Theory?High internal work motivation High quality work performance High satisfaction with work Low absenteeism and turnoverWhat other factors other than the 5 job characteristics and 3 psychological states have to happen in order for the Job Characteristics Theory to work?Employees have to have the competencies to do the job (have to be capable) Employees have to want personal growth in their jobs Employees have to have context satisfaction (with pay, coworker, security, supervisors)What is simplification?When work is broken down into simple, repetitive tasks that maximize efficiency; gives thinking aspects to managers and supervisors, and gives the average employees a narrowly defined task; Industrial RevolutionWhat is a big problem with simplification?It can be repetitive causing people to get bored.What is job enlargement?Process of expanding a job's duties; Horizontal expansionWhat s job enrichment?Process of putting specialized tasks back together so one person is responsible for producing a whole product or entire service; Vertical expansion (have higher levels of responsibility)What is job rotation?The process of rotating workers among different narrowly defined tasks without disrupting the flow of workWhich type of job design increases the number of tasks a person has to do, but does not give the person more authority for decision making?Job enlargementWhat are the 3 types of Justice in the Justice Theory?Distributive Justice Procedural Justice Interpersonal JusticeWhat is Distributive Justice?Has to do with equity--are the outcomes fair? (examples include: final grades, bonuses or raises, etc.)What is Procedural Justice?Has to do with are policies or procedures fair? (examples include: is the rubric fair, looking at the standards for performance appraisals, etc.)What is Interpersonal Justice?Has to do with is personal treatment fair? Meaning are you treated with dignity and respect (examples include: DMV forget forms, the way you are told)Why does fairness perceptions matter in retailing?Because if an individual feels as though they are not being treated fair, then the retailer is prone to internal theft b/c the company "owes" themIf HR were a house, job analysis would be...The foundationWhat is job analysis?The systematic process of collecting information used to make decisions about jobs; identifies tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a particular job (Gather info about a job)What is a job incumbent?The person who is currently assigned to the job in question (ex. political incumbent-someone who already holds the political position)Who performs a job analysis?Usually a member of HR or job incumbent; Sometimes a company will hire an outside consultant or have a manager do it.With job analysis, you are gathering ______________________ not measuring _______________________.Information about a job; job performanceWhat are the four elements of a job description?Job Title Job Summary Job Duties and Responsibilities Job Specifications and Minimum QualificationsWhat's the role of the Job Title?To identify what the job is.What's the role of the Job Summary?To describe the job in a nutshell in a sentence or twoWhat's the role of the Job Duties and Responsibilities?To explain what is expected and goes into the jobWhat's the role of the Job Specifications and Qualifications?To explain what is needed to get the job, and lists the physical aspects of the jobWhat are the different methods of gathering information for Job Analysis?Interview Observation Diary Questionnaire- Checklist Work Participation O*NetWhat is an interview?Where the incumbents or managers are asked to describe jobWhat are the benefits of an interview?It's easy We can get multiple perspectivesWhat are the drawbacks of an interview?People can try to glamorize the job (make it sound more important than it is) Time ConsumingWhat is an observation?Where you watch what people do and record it; can be performed by manager or consultantWhat are the benefits of an observation?Thorough view of the job (insight)What are the drawbacks of an observation?Might miss an important aspect of the job; some parts may be not be observableWhat is a diary job analysis?Where job incumbents write what they are doing at certain timesWhat's the benefits of a diary?ThoroughWhat are the drawbacks?Time consuming Hard to get employees to do it People have different writing abilities that can cause variations in descriptionsWhat is a Questionnaire?Checklist; a more off the shelf-approachWhat's the benefits of a questionnaire?Objective (not changing)What's the drawbacks of a questionnaire?Important tasks may not be on the list at allWhat is Work Participation?Where job analyst actually performs the jobWhat's the benefits of Work Participation?Very thorough understanding of the jobWhat's the drawbacks of Work Participation?Cannot participate for every job and it can be dangerousWhat are the 4 O*Net uses for HR practitioners?Writing and updating job descriptions (HR pract. may not know anything about the job, but this gives them a resource) Developing criteria for recruitment and selection Developing criteria for performance appraisals Designing compensation systemsWhat are the Guidelines for Conducting a Job Analysis?Determine application of job analysis (why are we doing this in the first place) Select the job(s) to be analyzed Gather Job Info (verify accuracy): use variety of sources Document the job analysis by writing a job descriptionWhat type of activities should companies outsource?Call centers, manufacturing, etc.; activities that don't have to do with their mission (ex. Heinz outsources the container production for its condiments)Why do companies outsource?To save money and because it's more efficient (Payroll is a common element that is outsources a lot of the time)What are some potential drawbacks of outsourcing?Loss of Control Don't get all of the BenefitsWhat is reshoring?Adding employees back to the US workforceWhat are core workers?An organization's full-time employeesWhat are contingent workers?Worker's hired to deal with temporary increases in an organization's workload or to do work that is not part of its core set of capabilitiesWhat is a temporary worker?Employees that work for a temp agency and are reassigned to another employer when their current job ends; gives employees more flexibilityWhat is job sharing?A work arrangement in which 2 or more employees divide a job's responsibilities, hours, and benefits among themselvesWhat is offshoring?The use of international outsource providers to gain competitive advantage in the marketWhat are contract workers?Employees who develop relationships directly with an employer for a specific piece of work or time periodWhat are the other terms for contract workers?Consultants or FreelancersWhat is core time?Time when all employees are expected to be at work (9-4 during an 8-hour workday)What is flextime?Time during which employees can choose to not be at work (come in from 7-9 and leave from 4-6)What is the compressed workweek?Altered number of workdays per week by increasing the length of the workday to 10 or more hours (ex. 4 10-hr days a week)What does a Human Resource Information System (HRIS) do?Collect, record, store, analyze, and retrieve data concerning an organization's human resourcesWhat are some potential problems associated with using an HRIS?Unauthorized users can create havocWhat might HR do to mitigate HRIS problems?Limit access Implement Passwords or Special Codes