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Terms in this set (69)
The use of learning principles to change problems, such as over eating, unrealistic fears, or temper tantrum's, is called
The "whole is greater than the sum of its parts" is the slogan of the
In shaping our personalities, Freud stress the role of
You see a psychologist and you tell her that you were feeling depressed. The psychologist talks to you about your past and attempts to link your present situation with unconscious patterns developed in your childhood as you interacted with your parents. This psychologist would probably belong to which school of psychology?
Free will and self determination
Humanistic theories emphasize
Which broad perspective in modern psychology seeks to explain behavior in terms of brain processes, evolution, and genetics?
The contemporary view in psychology that emphasizes the study of observable behavior and the effects of learning and stresses the influence of external rewards and punishments in the____________view.
The father of psychology and founder of the first psychological laboratory was
William James founded the school of thought in psychology known as
The idea that behavior must be judged relative to the values of the culture in which it occurs is called
Which part of the nervous system is responsible for the fight or flight response
Although playing catch and flying a kite in the park appear to be simple activities, in reality, each of these activities requires the work of many billions of individual nerve cells called
The two main divisions of the human nervous system are the peripheral nervous system and the_________nervous system.
The electrical charge of an in active neuron is called it's...
During a lecture when students receive information through their eyes from the notes on the screen and information through their ears as instructor lectures, The information will first travel through neurons within which nervous system?
The billions of neurons in the brain are accompanied by an almost equal number of other cells whose function is to support the neurons in a variety of ways. These cells are called
The axons are the tree-root like parts of neurons that are specially designed to receive the messages from other neurons
Regarding neurons, which of the following statements is FALSE?
Dendrites, Selma, axon
Within a neuron, information typically flows in which directional order?
The part of the neuron that sends information to other neurons"branches out" into smaller fibers, which end in bulb-shaped parts known as
The electrically charged molecules that are involved in a nerve impulse are called
Concentrations of ions on either side of the nerve cell membrane
The charge that exist across the nerve cell membrane is the result of differing
Threshold for firing
If the electrical charge of the neuron changes to about a minus 50 millivolts, The neuron will reach its
When the threshold for firing within a neuron occurs, we say that which of the following is taking place?
Action potentials occur completely or not at all
The "all or nothing event" refers to the fact that
The power of the brain arises from the cooperation of large numbers of neurons connected together in
CT scan and MRI scan
Which of the following bring tools can be used to map location, shape, and size of brain structures in living brains as well as any abnormal structures, such as tumors, that may be present?
Jesse is a psychologist who specializes in how a person's biological processes, brain, and nervous system are related to behavior. Jesse would be referred to as a
By placing positron detectors around the head and sending data to a computer, it is possible to create a moving, color picture of changes in brain activity using a(n)
localization of function
_________ is a researching strategy of linking specific structures in the brain with specific psychological or behavioral functions.
The senses are enough to give people a completely accurate "picture" of reality.
Regarding sensation and perception, which of the following statements is FALSE?
Visual "pop out,"or that Eye-catching effect, of such visual stimuli as lines, shapes, edges, spots, and colors occur because your visual system is highly sensitive to perceptual
Dr. Azure measures sound waves and electromagnetic radiation and relate them to the sensations people experience as loudness and brightness, respectively. Dr. Azure is conducting research in the area of
The process by which the brain organizes sensations into meaningful patterns is known as
The decrease in sensory response to an unchanging stimulus is known as
Look longer at the octopus because it was an unexpected object.
If you were asked to look at in advertisement of various shops on a city street, and you saw an octopus sitting on a bench near the curb in front of one of the shops, you would most likely
When our attention is narrowly focused, we may experience
Fans of the opposing sports teams often act as if they have seen completely different games. This probably results from the fans of each team focusing intently on their own players and not the other team, which illustrates
The type of sensation you experience depends on which brain area is activated with this process referred to as sensory____________.
Which of the following can be thought of as a "bottleneck" or a narrowing in the information channel linking the senses to perception, that is, when one message enters the bottleneck, it seems to prevent others from passing through?
The fact that objects that are close in space to each other tend to be grouped together is known as
The principles of perceptual grouping and perceptual consistencies
To help us make sense out of sensations, our brain creates our perceptions by using pre-existing knowledge, such as
Finding meaningful patterns in complex stimuli
In the textbook is a photomosaic by Robert Silver that is made up entirely of small, individual photos. An infant or newly sighted person would see only a jumble of meaningless colors. However, most people say that they see a familiar picture. This illustrates that visual perception involves
Perceptual misconstruction is responsible for misleading or distorted perceptions known as
Which of the following principles of perception would be most useful for those intending to camouflage military vehicles?
A perceptual set
While you were driving, you make an illegal lane change and see a flashing light behind you. You immediately think, "Ticket time" and prepare to pull over. But as the car behind you draws nearer, you see that it is just a car with a vivid turn signal. Your behavior regarding the flashing light illustrates
The tendency to fill in gaps in the perception of a figure is called
If you were hungry, food and even food-related words are more likely to gain your attention then nonfood-related words. This illustrates the influence of
Show a consistent other-race effect
In test a facial recognition, people
According to psychologist Barbara Fredrickson, which of the following generally narrows our perceptual focus and increases the likelihood of inattentional blindness?
When you need information stored in computer files, you select the file and open it. When you need information from your long-term memory, you utilize the memory process known ass
A planned search of memory
Successful retrieval is usually the result of
Recall the information chronologically as it was given in a lecture in order to assure the accuracy of the information
You were taking a fill in the blank an essay test on psychology theories, and terms. As you answer these test questions, which of the following would NOT be helpful in recalling this information?
Information in long-term memory can be retained for
Which of the following are visual depictions used by most people when thinking?
The process of holding information in memory for later use is referred to as
Huge warehouse filled with large filing cabinets
When discussing the relationship between short-term and long-term memory, the authors of your textbook use the analogy of long-term memory being like a
Physical changes in nerve cells or brain activity that take place when memories are stored are referred to as
Short term memories can be prolonged bye
What we pay attention to
How elaborate or memory
What we feel strongly about and what we regard as important
What we remember depends on
The fact that it is easier for you to think of a canary as a bird before you think I have a canary as an animal is explained by the difference in distance between units of information within the
Recall is required rather than recognition
Essay questions tend to be more difficult than multiple choice because with an essay question,
Although George Miller theorized that short term memory can usually only handle seven "bits" of information, other psychologist believe that, without some chunking occurring, short term memory may only hold_______________items.
As Morgan studies her psychology notes, she tries to use the new terms in several sentences into form images that include the new information. Morgan is trying to knit which of the following into her memory code to help her remember this information when she needs it?
Iconic memory involves fleeting visual images that persist for about__________second(s).
Consolidation is disrupted
Memory loss accompanying electroconvulsive shock probably occurs because
Many events never get past sensory or short-term memory
Penfield's claim that the brain records the past like a "strip of movie film, complete with soundtrack" is an exaggeration since
Knowing your multiplication tables
Remembering the events that took place on your last vacation
Remembering your mothers maiden name
Which of the following would be a declarative, or fact, memory?
The progressive part method is a good way to learn lines in a play, a poem, or a musical piece
In comparing whole and part learning, which of the following statements is/are TRUE?
To learn her psychology terms, Felicia just repeats the terms' definitions over and over again. This illustrates
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