5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Causes of Dispersal at Proximal Level
- Another way to maintain direction
- Size of Hippocampus differences
- Dispersal in Pikas
- Natal Dispersal
- a Another way to maintain direction is to use the sun or stars as a
compass and maintain a constant angle to it while traveling. This
requires an internal clock to compensate for the sun moving at about 15° per hour
- b Most juvenile pikas stay in their natal patch for life but individuals occasionally disperse both within and between patches of talus Of those that move 100 m or more,
most were females
- c males of polygynous species have hippocampi that were 11% larger than females whereas in monogamous species the difference was only 2% (no data for humans).
- d an individual may be forced out by its
parents or as an involuntary response to increased testosterone
levels associated with sexual maturation
- e means leaving the site of birth or
social group (emigration), traversing unfamiliar habitat, and
settling into a new area and/or social group (immigration).
5 Multiple choice questions
- Choice of a habitat may be limited by:
• accessibility (islands versus mainland)
• behavior patterns (i.e., prefer trees to grasslands)
• allelopathic agents (plant toxins)
• abiotic factors (temperature, moisture, light, nutrients)
- Increased Intraspecific Competition for Resources Increased Chance for Spread of Diseases and Parasite Interference with Reproduction
- - a sense of direction (some form of compass)
- a sense of location (understand where it is starting from)
- Detection of and communication about danger is more rapid
when individuals are in groups and predator deterrence may be
enhanced by mobbing and group defense.
- polygynous or promiscuous
mating systems, and especially those with scramble competition
5 True/False questions
Does competition hypothesis predict which sex should leave? → Yes, the male should disperse in a polygynous species
Interference with Reproduction → It manifests itself through reduced reproductive success and
survival of offspring from closely related parents compared to
offspring of unrelated parents.
It is caused by increased homozygosity of the inbred offspring
and the resulting expression of deleterious recessive alleles.
Richer Learning Environment for Young: → This suggested to be very important for primates and cetaceans.
Dependence on learning provides for greater behavioral plasticity, but it requires a long period of physiological and psychological dependence
Migration → Migratory movements take an animal out of its home range and
habitat type and is triggered by proximal cues, such as photoperiod,
that are linked to ultimate factors, such as shortage of resources
Bats and Migration → Large ungulates migrate impressive distances as well.
Barren ground caribou herds move migrate 1000+ km between
wintering and summering grounds.