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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Causes of Dispersal at Proximal Level
  2. Another way to maintain direction
  3. Size of Hippocampus differences
  4. Dispersal in Pikas
  5. Natal Dispersal
  1. a Another way to maintain direction is to use the sun or stars as a
    compass and maintain a constant angle to it while traveling. This
    requires an internal clock to compensate for the sun moving at about 15° per hour
  2. b Most juvenile pikas stay in their natal patch for life but individuals occasionally disperse both within and between patches of talus Of those that move 100 m or more,
    most were females
  3. c males of polygynous species have hippocampi that were 11% larger than females whereas in monogamous species the difference was only 2% (no data for humans).
  4. d an individual may be forced out by its
    parents or as an involuntary response to increased testosterone
    levels associated with sexual maturation
  5. e means leaving the site of birth or
    social group (emigration), traversing unfamiliar habitat, and
    settling into a new area and/or social group (immigration).

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Choice of a habitat may be limited by:
    • accessibility (islands versus mainland)
    • behavior patterns (i.e., prefer trees to grasslands)
    • predators
    • parasites
    • diseases
    • allelopathic agents (plant toxins)
    • competitors
    • abiotic factors (temperature, moisture, light, nutrients)
  2. Increased Intraspecific Competition for Resources Increased Chance for Spread of Diseases and Parasite Interference with Reproduction
  3. - a sense of direction (some form of compass)
    - a sense of location (understand where it is starting from)
  4. Detection of and communication about danger is more rapid
    when individuals are in groups and predator deterrence may be
    enhanced by mobbing and group defense.
  5. polygynous or promiscuous
    mating systems, and especially those with scramble competition
    for mates.

5 True/False questions

  1. Does competition hypothesis predict which sex should leave?Yes, the male should disperse in a polygynous species


  2. Interference with ReproductionIt manifests itself through reduced reproductive success and
    survival of offspring from closely related parents compared to
    offspring of unrelated parents.
    It is caused by increased homozygosity of the inbred offspring
    and the resulting expression of deleterious recessive alleles.


  3. Richer Learning Environment for Young:This suggested to be very important for primates and cetaceans.
    Dependence on learning provides for greater behavioral plasticity, but it requires a long period of physiological and psychological dependence


  4. MigrationMigratory movements take an animal out of its home range and
    habitat type and is triggered by proximal cues, such as photoperiod,
    that are linked to ultimate factors, such as shortage of resources


  5. Bats and MigrationLarge ungulates migrate impressive distances as well.
    Barren ground caribou herds move migrate 1000+ km between
    wintering and summering grounds.