42 terms

Psychology: Learning Curve 1b.

STUDY
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A statistical measure used to assess the extent to which two factors vary together and therefore how well either one predicts the other is called _____.
a correlation coefficient
The tendency to be more confident than correct in predicting one's own behaviors illustrates an error in thinking called _____.
overconfidence
A study of an individual may mislead us if the individual is atypical. This expresses a limitation of the _____ method of descriptive research.
case study
SQ3R is a study method incorporating five steps: survey, question, read, ________, and review.
retrieve
If the same individual wins the Powerball lottery on two separate occasions, this occurrence best illustrates:
a random outcome
Studies indicate that anxiety may be caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain. Using information from these studies, a chemist at a pharmaceutical company has an idea for a new medication that she thinks will correct the imbalance. The chemist's idea is a(n) _____.
theory
In an experimental study of the extent to which mental alertness is inhibited by sleep deprivation, alertness would be the:
dependent variable
When we are trying to explain psychological phenomena, overconfidence can lead us astray. This shows that we cannot rely solely on _____ and common sense.
intuition
Dr. Loyola administers surveys to 15 refugees of the roughly 5000 refugees from Somalia who reside in Minneapolis because she is interested in their immigration experiences. After examining the survey answers, Dr. Petrie concludes that all refugees in Minnesota, roughly 12,000 in total, have experienced racism and discrimination since coming to the United States. What are some problems with this study?
sample size and sample bias
In a clinical trial of Drug R for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), researchers hypothesize that 200 mg of Drug R will reduce GAD symptoms by 25 percent, as evidenced by the Hamilton Anxiety Scale. The independent variable is:
mg of Drug R administered
Dr. Neider is studying how rats learn to navigate a maze. The results of this study can be applied to human learning because:
humans and rats have the same learning process
We cannot rely solely on intuition or common sense to explain psychological phenomena. This is because we tend to think we know more than we actually do know, known as _____, and because of the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon, or _____.
overconfidence; hindsight bias
Dr. Petrie is interested in learning about the immigration experiences of Somalian migrants in Minnesota. Which of the following methods would be BEST for this research interest?
a survey
At the beginning of the school year, students were asked to predict several social behaviors, such as how often they would call their parents, and to say how accurate they thought their predictions would be. Their predictions were not as accurate as they had thought they would be. This illustrates a phenomenon known as:
overconfidence
In her introductory psychology course, Dr. Campbell requires each student and a partner to design and conduct a research study. Lisa has and her partner have selected the survey method. What should they keep in mind as the designs their study?
The order and wording of questions is critically important, as is choosing a random, representative sample of the population under study
A negative correlation between people's work-related stress and their marital happiness would indicate that:
higher levels of marital happiness are associated with lower levels of work-related stress
Dr. Garcia tells parents that she is studying addiction to video games in children but she is really studying childhood aggression. Dr. Garcia brings children and their parents into her lab and has the child play a video game. Then, once the child is enjoying the game, the parent is asked to remove the game from the child. Dr. Garcia is interested in how the children react when the game is removed. Dr. Garcia is using deception in her research and must explain the purpose of the deception and must _______ participants when the study is over
debrief
Sandra bought 20 lottery tickets every week. After 15 years, she hit the jackpot and won millions of dollars. During an interview with a TV reporter, she was tempted to say that she had known all along that her number would come up someday, but she did not. Sandra avoided making a thinking error called _____.
hindsight bias
Dr. Hernandez is interested in parent-child interaction in a play environment. Which of the following would be the BEST research method for this topic?
naturalistic observation
Dr. Ruth decided to assess whether violent imagery affected people's sense of humor. She showed married couples either violent or nonviolent movie scenes. Then the couples watched a comedy skit, and Dr. Ruth's assistants measured how often the couples laughed. In this research, the dependent variable consisted of:
sense of humor
Javier has designed a survey to measure the attitudes of the students at his university about the bus service on campus. He hopes to survey 1000 of the 21,000 students on campus. All the students at Javier's university form the _____ from which he will draw his sample.
population
Before the annual "Blue versus Red" football game, Sara bet on the Blue team, who later lost. After the game, she claimed she knew the Blue team would lose. This illustrates:
hindsight bias
After some research, Albert chose six companies in which to invest money. His wife fully supported his decisions, so he made the investments. After a year, five companies had gone bankrupt, wiping out Albert's investments. His wife was furious, claiming that anyone could have seen that these companies were going to fail. This claim illustrates a thinking error called:
hindsight bias
Dr. Nygard is interested in learning about the immigration experiences of Syrian migrants in Maine. After surveying 15 migrants in Maine, he concludes that all migrants in Maine have experienced racism and discrimination since coming to the United States. Dr. Nygard can _______ the results to other migrants from Syria in Maine.
generalize
Studies indicate that anxiety may be caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain. Using information from these studies, a chemist at a pharmaceutical company has an idea for a new medication that she thinks will correct the imbalance. The chemist's idea is a(n):
theory
Martin was in a car accident that left him in a coma and near death. His physicians predicted that he would never wake up, but 13 days after the accident, Martin did wake up and was soon on the road to recovery. Martin's Aunt Marie proudly claimed, "I knew all along that Marty would make it." This illustrates a thinking error is called:
hindsight bias
Dr. Loyola administers surveys to 15 refugees of the roughly 5000 refugees from Somalia who reside in Minneapolis because she is interested in their immigration experiences. After examining the survey answers, Dr. Petrie concludes that all refugees in Minnesota, roughly 12,000 in total, have experienced racism and discrimination since coming to the United States. What are some problems with this study?
sample size and sample bias
If a researcher is studying different approaches to dieting to determine which is the most effective for weight loss, the manipulation of dieting is the:
independent variable
Marissa has correctly predicted the final score of her university's basketball games in two consecutive games. In this instance, we can reasonably conclude that Marissa's predictive accuracy:
is a random and coincidental occurrence
A good theory has which of the following characteristics?
It includes an integrated set of principles
Kari admires her neighbor, who is well known for having taken in numerous stray animals. Kari is also interested in studying how to get more people to adopt pets from the animal shelter. Which of the following is the BEST approach for studying this type of altruistic behavior?
Conduct a case study by intensely interviewing the neighbor over the course of a year, but remember that anything one learns about her altruistic behaviors might not be relevant to the rest of the population
Dr. Vockler conducted an experimental study to determine if different dieting programs had any impact on weight loss. In this context, weight loss would be the study's:
dependent variable
A research study indicated that as work-related stress increases, marital satisfaction decreases. This finding illustrates a _____ correlation between people's work-related stress and their marital happiness.
negative
Dr. Petrie is interested in learning about the immigration experiences of Somalian migrants in Minnesota. Which of the following methods would be BEST for this research interest?
survey
Kaiser company's studies indicate that its new medication for depression significantly reduces symptoms in 90 percent of people diagnosed with depression. However, many well-constructed replication studies indicate that the new medication is no more effective than a placebo. Which of the following statements is likely to reflect the thinking of psychiatrists who have read all the studies?
The company's studies should be re-evaluated because their findings could not be replicated
The homecoming queen from Jaiden's high school married the captain of the football team right after graduation. After learning that they are splitting up, Jaiden has the feeling that he would have predicted this, even though at the time he told his best friend that he could not imagine them apart. This illustrates:
hindsight bias
An instructor has asked her class to create a study to examine the behavior of coyotes in a nearby preserve. Because the instructor is asking students simply to observe and record behavior, not to detect relationships among factors or explore cause and effect, which of the following methods should students choose?
naturalistic observation
"If hunger improves intellectual performance, then hungry adults will score higher on a math test than adults who are not hungry." In that statement, "hunger improves intellectual performance" is a(n):
theory
A pharmaceutical company has developed a new medication to treat depression. The results of the company's studies indicate that the medication significantly reduces symptoms of depression in 90 percent of people diagnosed with depression. However, numerous well-constructed replications of these studies fail to obtain the same results; rather, the replication studies indicate that the new medication is no more effective than a placebo in reducing the symptoms of depression. We can conclude it is likely that the:
new medication is not an effective treatment for depression
Which of the following scenarios illustrates hindsight bias?

(A) After seeing case information and an autopsy report, physicians may claim that they could have used the case information alone to predict the cause of death accurately.

(B) Two physicians disagree about how best to treat a certain patient. They decide to see if research indicates which treatment has been more successful.

(C) A physician predicts it will take her two hours to complete a surgical procedure that then takes her three hours.

(D) Looking back on their medical training, physicians tend to exaggerate the number of hours they spent working during medical school.
(A)
The results of Jasper's study for his dissertation showed that 200 mg of experimental Drug R had a minimal-to-modest effect in reducing the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). He decided to revise his original hypothesis by increasing the dosage needed to reduce GAD symptoms by 25 percent to 300 mg. This increase in Drug R is a manipulation of the:
independent variable
Which of the following represents a hypothesis implied by the theory that hunger improves intellectual performance?

(A) Since 1990, elementary school children have performed better on standardized tests taken before lunch than after lunch.

(B) Hungry children will have difficulty concentrating.

(C) Hungry adults will score higher on a math test than adults who are not hungry.

(D) Hunger is measured by the number of hours since eating.
(C)
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