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american history chapter 23

In 1949, the containment policy suffered a major setback in the form of

the "loss" of China to communism.

The first hot war of the Cold War—beginning in June 1950—took place in


Which of the following was not a step toward racial equality in postwar America?

the defeat of Operation Dixie

The 1948 United Nations-approved document that called for a range of rights to be enjoyed by people everywhere, including freedom of speech and religion, as well as social and economic entitlements, including the right to an adequate standard of living, access to adequate housing, education, and medical care was called

the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

In June 1948, when the United States, Britain, and France introduced a separate currency in their zones of control in the city of Berlin, the Soviet Union responded with

the Berlin Blockade.

"Containment" in the context of post-World War II international diplomacy on the part of the United States referred to

the policy by which the United States committed itself to preventing any further expansion of Soviet power.

Who was the person who sent the Long Telegram from Moscow in 1946 that lay the foundation for what became known as the policy of "containment"?

George F. Kennan

The 1950 National Security Council manifesto that called for a permanent military build-up to enable the United States to pursue a global crusade against communism, describing the Cold War as an epic struggle between "the idea of freedom" and the "idea of slavery under the grim oligarchy of the Kremlin" was


The young California congressman who first gained national prominence through his membership on the House Un-American Activities Committee was

Richard Nixon.

Which was not a development of 1949?

The Soviets formalized their own eastern European alliance, the Warsaw Pact.

The Truman Doctrine, in March 1947,

asserted that the United States, as the leader of the "free world," must take up responsibility for supporting "freedom-loving peoples" wherever communism threatened them.

Which of the following was not a dramatic feature of the 1948 presidential election?

lively debate between supporters and critics of the Korean War

What was the name of the American Federation of Labor (AFL) and Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) campaign to bring unionization to the South, by which more than 200 labor organizations entered the region in an effort to organize workers?

Operation Dixie

Which of the following was not a key provision of the 1947 Taft-Hartley Act?

Unions cannot discriminate on the basis of race.

Which of the following series of events is listed in proper sequence?

George Kennan's Long Telegram; unveiling of Truman Doctrine; start of Korean War; founding of Warsaw Pact

Anti-Communism was used by the U.S. leaders to

all of the above.

What was the 1947 law that sought to reverse gains made by organized labor in the preceding decade, and authorized the president to suspend strikes by ordering an 80-day cooling-off period, banned sympathy strikes and secondary boycotts, outlawed the closed shop, and authorized states to pass "right to work" laws?

the Taft-Hartley Act

The June 1947 United States foreign-policy initiative that envisioned a New Deal for Europe, and pledged billions of dollars to finance European economic recovery was

the Marshall Plan.

The United Nations committee that drafted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was led by

Eleanor Roosevelt.

The "Dixiecrat" presidential ticket of 1948 was led by

Strom Thurmond.

Which of the following was not a common target of the anticommunist crusade?

laissez-faire conservatism

Which is not true of the Korean War (1950-1953)?

President Truman acknowledged and accepted General MacArthur's push toward the Chinese border and his threat to use nuclear weapons against the Chinese.

Which of the following was not a contributing factor behind the rise of the Cold War?

Churchill's call for the construction of a great wall between East and West Germany

Who was the United States senator from Wisconsin who announced in February 1950 that he had a list of 205 communists working for the State Department, and whose name later entered the political vocabulary as a shorthand for character assassination, guilt by association, and abuse of power in the name of anti-communism?

Joseph R. McCarthy

President Harry S. Truman's program that focused on improving the social safety net and raising the standard of living of ordinary Americans—calling on Congress to increase the middle wage, enact a program of national health insurance, and expand public housing, social security, and aid to education—was

the Fair Deal.

George Kennan was

the originator of the containment policy.

In the context of postwar Civil Rights, what major-league baseball player joined the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947 and by so doing challenged the longstanding exclusion of black players from major-league baseball?

Jackie Robinson

The Truman administration responded to the Soviet blockade of West Berlin by

leading efforts to break the blockade by airlifting supplies to the city.

Two outspoken critics of the domestic anticommunist crusade were

Paul Robeson and W. E. B. Du Bois.

In 1950, a serious challenge to the containment policy occurred with

the invasion of South Korea.

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