Sperm freshly deposited in the female vagina are incapable of fertilizing an egg. What must happen first?
Which of the following is the primary germ layer that forms the basis for the digestive, respiratory, and urogenital systems, and for associated glands?
A dangerous complication of pregnancy called __________ results in an insufficient placental blood supply, which can starve a fetus of oxygen. The pregnant woman becomes edematous and hypertensive, and proteinuria occurs.
Which of the following INCORRECTLY matches an embryonic structure with its function?
yolk sac/provides nutrients to developing embryo
T/F: While human chorionic gonadotropin levels spike and sharply decline to reach a low value by four months, estrogen and progesterone levels steadily increase over the course of the pregnancy.
Which body system of a pregnant woman shows the most dramatic physiological changes during pregnancy?
pregnant woman with preeclampsia becomes edematous and hypertensive. An effective way to treat these symptoms might be ______.
to use drugs that cause systemic vasodilatation
During a cesarean section, an incision is made through all EXCEPT which of the following?
Sperm move to the uterine tube through uterine contractions and the energy of their own flagella. What other factor is involved in sperm movement?
reverse peristalsis of the uterus and uterine tubes
Select the correct statement about fertilization
Millions of sperm cells are destroyed by the vagina's acidic environment
Proteases and acrosin are enzymes. How do they function in reproduction?
They act to break down the protective barriers around the egg, allowing the sperm to penetrate.
It is impossible for sperm to be functional (able to fertilize the egg) until after ________.
they undergo capacitation
Once sperm are deposited into the vagina, sperm motility must be enhanced and they must be prepared to release hydrolytic enzymes from their acrosomes. What is this process called?
T/F: By 72 hours after fertilization, the egg has divided into more than 160 cells and is called the morula.
Which of the following is the correct sequence of development from zygote to embryo?
cleavage, morula, blastocyst, gastrula
Cleavage as part of embryonic development is distinctive because it involves ________.
cell division by mitosis with little or no growth between successive divisions
Which of the following events does not occur during the first 8 weeks of development?
myelination of the spinal cord
The placenta, a vitally important metabolic organ, is made up of a contribution from mother and fetus. Which portion is from the fetus?
Estrogen and progesterone maintain the integrity of the uterine lining and prepare the mammary glands to secrete milk. Which of the following structures makes this possible during the first three months of pregnancy?
T/F: In fetal circulation, one way in which blood bypasses the nonaerated lungs is by way of the foramen ovale.
At what period of fetal development are all body systems present in at least rudimentary form?
8 weeks post fertilization
Which extra-embryonic membrane protects the developing embryo against physical trauma and helps maintain a constant homeostatic temperature?
T/F: The body systems of the developing embryo are present in at least rudimentary form at eight weeks.
Which fetal vascular shunt directly connects the right atrium to the left atrium so as to bypass the nonfunctional lungs?
T/F: A pregnant woman urinates more often than usual because the uterus compresses the bladder, and she must also dispose of fetal metabolic wastes.
Relaxin is a hormone produced by the placenta and ovaries. The function of this hormone is to ________.
relax the pubic symphysis
The softening and thinning of the cervix during the dilation stage is known as ___________.
What is released from fetal lungs in the weeks before delivery to soften the cervix in preparation for labor?
surfactant protein A (SP-A)
The cardiovascular system of a newborn must be adjusted after the infant takes its first breath. Which of the following is also true?
The ductus arteriosus constricts and is converted to the ligamentum arteriosum.
Milk ejection or letdown reflex is stimulated by which of the following hormones associated with pregnancy?