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Chapter 34

What is the basis for the recognition of the Intertidal zone?
The intertidal zone is flooded at high tide and dry during low tide.
After an increase in nutrients due to sewage contamination, a lake often becomes inhospitable to fish. Why?
Nutrient input to a lake causes the explosive growth of algal and cyanobacterial populations. Decomposition of dead algae and cyanobacteria by bacteria results in the depletion of oxygen in the water, which leads to the death of all the fish. (A lack of oxygen is the ultimate cause of fish death.)
Communities that exist in an ocean's aphotic zone ultimately depend on food molecules manufactured by chemoautotrophic bacteria or ____________.
algae and cyanobacteria that live in the photic zone.
The ______ biome contains land that can be used for highly productive agriculture.
temperate grassland
What factor is responsible for the moderate winters that characterize the chaparral biome?
cool ocean currents.
The most nutrient-poor soils are found in _____ biomes.
tropical rain forest
An organisms environments consists of ______.
abiotic and biotic factors
What do savanna, chaparral, temperate grassland, and coniferous forest biomes have in common?
Periodic fires play a role in maintaining these ecosystems.
Which of these is a population?
all of the people living in your state
Which of these is a community?
you and all of the prokaryotes living in and on you
When people speak of the "rain shadow" of the Califronia Coast Range, they are referring to _________.
the scarcity of rain on the eastern flank and adjacent lowlands compared with the western flank
Who wrote the influential book Silent Spring and is considered one of the founders of the modern environment movement?
Rachel Carson
Huge herds o bisons and pronghorn antelopes once roamed the North American ________.
In lakes, the nutrients that usually limit the growth of phytoplankton are _____.
nitrogen and phosphorus
Most of the best agricultural soils in the United States occur in areas that were formerly ________.
A coniferous forest would be characterized by ______.
cone-bearing evergreen trees.
The chaparral biome is maintained by _____.
periodic fires
The ocean's pelagic zone contains what type(s) of organisms?
swimming and drifting organisms
Which of these is a freshwater biome?
What links all parts of the biosphere together?
the water cycle
What would be considered a biotic component of your environment
your friend (Living things)
What type of plants dominate the chaparral biome?
dense, spiny shrubs with evergreen leaves
The most inclusive level of organization in nature is the _______.
The presence of a species in a particular place, and its ability to reproduce there, implies that ______.
the species adapted by natural selection to the type of abiotic and biotic environmental conditions found at that location.
In contrast to tropical forests, temperate broadleaf forests ________.
have a thick layer of leaf litter
An ecologist might conduct research to answer which of the following questions?
How do tapeworms cope with life in the human intestine?
Different species that belong to the same biome, but occur in widely separated geographic regions, often appear similar due to _________.
convergent evolution (convergence)
What biome is dominated by gymnosperm or conifer trees?
The _____ biome is the driest of all biomes
Grasses and scattered trees are a dominant part of the plant community in the ______.
What aquatic biome is one of the most productive of all biomes?
The specific place in which an organism lives is its _________.
Vertical stratification (layers of plants) is most pronounced in the _______.
tropical rain forest
What is the ultimate source of energy for nearly all surface terrestrial and shallow water ecosystems?
Fire helps to maintain the existence of which biomes?
savanna, chaparral, temperate grassland, and coniferous forest
The major factors affecting the distribution of terrestrial biomes are _______ and _________.
temperature, rainfall
What biome would your expect decomposers to work most rapidly and efficiently?
tropical rain forest
An immature frog (a tadpole) lives in a pond or lake. The adult frog lives on land, and it possesses special adaptations that permit it to survive in a terrestrial environment. These special adaptations __________.
help prevent the adult frog's body from drying out.
Some North American grasslands are called shortgrass prairies, while others are called tallgrass prairies. What is the main cause of difference in grass size?
amount of rainfall
What biome are many of the world's most spectacular animals - giraffes, zebras, lions, and cheetahs - found?
Why are many of the world's deserts located at latitudes of about 30 degrees north and south?
Dry air, originating at the equator, descends toward Earth's surface at about 30 degree north and south.
The sum of all Earth's ecosystems is called the _____.
Earth's biosphere is not completely self-contained (or closed) because _________.
plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria obtain energy from sunlight, and heat escapes from the biosphere into space
What is the ultimate source of energy for nearly all surface terrestrial and shallow water ecosystems?
A pronghorn can reach speeds of almost 100 km/hr. Ecologists believe that the pronghorn's speed evolved _____.
because 12,000 years ago the pronghorn's major predator was the now-extinct American cheetah
Plankton (phytoplankton and zooplankton) consists of _____.
algae, cyanobacteria, and animals that drift near the surfaces of oceans, lakes, ponds, rivers, and streams
Overgrazing and dry land farming can convert savanna to _____.
What do savanna, chaparral, temperate grassland, and coniferous forest biomes have in common?
Periodic fires play a role in maintaining these ecosystems.
Permafrost is characteristic of the _____.
How does permafrost affect the tundra vegetation?
It prevents roots from penetrating very far into the ground.
There is snow and ice year round at the polar ice caps. Yet, some animals such as polar bears and penguins can live there. How can the polar ice caps support these animals?
Polar animals such as polar bears, seals, and penguins feed in the neighboring marine biome.
Which of the following proposed research projects would occur at the ecosystem level?
Paula Krenshaw has proposed studying how polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are transferred between organisms living in the desert southwest.
Which statement about the biosphere is true?
A feature of the biosphere is its patchiness.
The work of Rachel Carson and other ecologists revealed the terrible consequences of the overuse of DDT. These ecologists were working at what level of environmental interaction?
Which of the following factors would have the LEAST impact on a deep-sea hydrothermal vent community?
solar energy
A cottontail rabbit living in Illinois survives in a hostile environment. Which of the following is an adaptation that functions primarily to address a biotic factor?
a light-colored winter coat that blends in well with light-colored vegetation, snow, and ice
In the state of Washington, the prevailing winds blow eastward off of the ocean and up and over two mountain ranges. Biologists are searching for a rare fern plant that is known to prefer cool and wet environments, but hasn't been seen in this state for many decades. Where would the biologists most likely find the plant?
on the west sides of the mountain ranges at higher elevations
A sea urchin living in an intertidal zone must be a tough individual, capable of withstanding many forms of environmental stress. Animals in an intertidal zone are stressed by which of the following?
a broad range of temperatures and the risk of drying out
Which of the following statements regarding freshwater ecosystems is true?
Temperature may have a profound effect on freshwater ecosystems.
The kind of terrestrial biome that exists in a particular region depends largely on _____ and _____.
temperature ... precipitation
What is a unique feature of many plants that inhabit tropical forests, such as orchids?
They are epiphytes
Kangaroo is to Australia as _____ is to Africa.
A desert rodent living in a biome created by the rain shadow of a mountain in Mexico would be expected to _____.
be lightly colored, to blend into its environment and avoid predators
You are a birdwatcher visiting the desert southwest. Which of the following birds are you most likely to find?
a ferruginous pygmy owl, which often nests in saguaro cacti and eats insects
"Mediterranean" is another name for this type of biome.
What natural phenomenon maintains the presence of grasslands?
periodic fires
Temperate broadleaf forests are characterized by _____.
a broad range of temperatures ranging from -30°C to 30°C
Which of the following biomes, dominated by cone-bearing evergreen trees, is the largest terrestrial biome?
coniferous forest
Which characteristic do chaparral and tundra have in common?
absence of tall trees
Which of the following correctly lists the biomes in order from lowest precipitation (at the left) to highest precipitation (to the right)?
desert, tundra, temperate broadleaf forest, tropical rain forest
Which of the following statements about the water cycle is true?
Because they contain water, aquatic ecosystems are not part of the water cycle.