Government Quiz 4/19/13
Terms in this set (36)
Which article of the U.S. Constitution deals with the Judicial Branch?
Court Systems in the U.S.
1. The National Judiciary spans the whole country
2. Each of the 50 states has its own system.
Who created U.S. Supreme Court and Inferior Courts?
The U.S. Constitution created the U.S. Supreme Court (korkein oikeus), and left to Congress the creation of the Inferior Courts (alioikeus).
the authority of a Court to hear and decide a case.
The basis of this authority is (1) subject matter (aihe, perustuslakia rikkoneet Federal court, osavaltion lakia rikkoneet omaan osavaltioonsa) or (2) the parties involved in the case.
the authority of a court alone to hear a case.
the authority of both Federal and State to hear case
the authority of a court to hear a case first
the authority of a court to review on appeal a case form a lower court
(syyttäjä) is the person who brings a suit in law against another
(vastaaja) is the person who must answer, defend against a complaint in a legal action (PLEAs guilty, not guilty, not guilty with insanity, guilty with insanity, no contest)
hears and rules on cases in court; Federal Judges are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate; appointed for life; Ohio judges are elected by the people for a six year term.
(rauhan/poliisituomari) handles a number of legal matters once dealt with by the judge
(asianajaja) is responsible for the prosecution of all persons charged with a Federal crime, represents the U.S. in civil cases.
makes arrests in federal criminal cases, keeps accused in custody, serves legal papers, executes court orders.
the Federal Gov.'s chief lawyer, represents the U.S. in the Supreme Court, decides which cases the Gov. should ask the Supreme Court to review.
the code of conduct by which society is governed.
made by law-making bodies
made by executive officers (independent agencies)
unwritten judge-made law (judges)
that branch of law that supplements Common Law.
- Common law provides remedy after the fact
-precedent: A judge's decision, followed in similar cases
-Equity seeks to stop a wrong before it occurs
- injunction: Court order prohibiting specified action by the party name in the order
portion of the law that defines public wrongs and provides for their punishment. (the Gov. as the prosecutor is always a party in a criminal case) (traffic violation)
law relating to human conduct (no one goes to jail) (divorce, custody, contract)
a case in which an individual is accused of committing an act prohibited by law. (penalty - fine and/or prison term)
less serious offense punishable by a small fine ($500) and/or a short prison term (Less than a year)
more serious offense punishable by a heavy fine and/or long prison term.
a case which involves a dispute between two or more persons, refers to as suits; leads to award of money of doing or not doing a specific action.
a body of persons selected according to law who hear evidence and decide questions of fact in a court of law: picked from voter registration
persons who determine if evidence against a person charged with a crime is sufficient to justify a trial
persons who hear evidence and decide the disputed facts
a formal accusation (by a grand jury) charging a person with a crime
a formal charge filed by the prosecutor without a grand jury
made by the jury or the judge
can't come up with a decision
refers to a criminal proceedings in accordance with the law
refers to a civil action for recovery of a right or a claim
judicial proceeding that is neither a suit or a trial (arraignment, plea, evidence, etc)
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