116 terms

Unit 1 American Beginnings to 1783

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Adena
A Mound Builder society that was centered in the Ohio River Valley and flourished from about 700 b.c. to a.d. 100.
Anasazi
A Native American group that lived on the mesa tops, cliff sides, and canyon bottoms of the Four Corners region (where present-day states Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah meet) from about a.d. 100 to 1300.
Anne Hutchinson
Was a Puritan spiritual advisor, mother of 15, and an important participant in the Antinomian Controversy that shook the inFant Massachusetts Bay Colony from 1636 to 1638.
Aztec
A Native American people that settled in the Valley of Mexico in the 1200s a.d. and later developed a powerful empire.
Benin
A West African kingdom that flourished in the Niger Delta region (in what is now Nigeria) from the 14th to the 17th century.
Benjamin Franklin
Was one of the Founding fathers of the United States. Was a renowned polymath and leading author, printer, political theorist, politician, freemason, postmaster, scientist, investor, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat.
Boston Massacre
A clash between British soldiers and Boston colonists in 1770, in which five of the colonists were killed.
Boston Tea Party
The dumping of 18,000 pounds of tea into Boston Harbor by colonists in 1773 to protest the Tea Act.
Cash Crop
A crop grown by a farmer for sale rather than for personal use.
Charles Cornwallis
Was a British Army officer and colonial administrator.
Christopher Columbus
An Italian explorer responsible for the European discovery of America in 1492. (Spain)
Colonization
The establishment of outlying settlements by a parent country.
Columbian Exchange
The transfer-beginning with Columbus's first voyage-of plants, animals, and diseases between the Western Hemisphere and the Eastern Hemisphere.
Committee of Correspondence
One of the groups set up by American colonists to exchange information about British threats to their liberties.
Common Sense
A pamphlet by Thomas Paine, published in 1776, that called for separation of the colonies from Britain.
Conquistador
One of the Spaniards who traveled to the Americas as an explorer and conqueror in the 16th century.
Crusades
A series of Christian military expeditions to the Middle East between a.d. 1096 and 1270, intended to drive the Muslims from the Holy Land.
Declaration of Independence
The document, written by Thomas Jefferson in 1776, which the delegates of the Continental Congress declared the colonies' independence from Britain.
Division of Labor
The assignment of different tasks and responsibilities to different groups of individuals.
Dominion of England
In America was an administrative union of English colonies covering New England and the Mid-Atlantic colonies.
Egalitarianism
The belief that all people should have equal political, economic, social, and civil rights.
Encomienda
A system in which Spanish authorities granted colonial landlords the service of Native Americans as forced laborers.
Enlightenment
An 18th-century intellectual movement that emphasized the use of reason and the scientific method as means of obtaining knowledge.
French and Indian War
A conflict in North America, lasting from 1754 to 1763, that was a part of a worldwide struggle between France and Britain and that ended with the defeat of France and the transfer of French Canada to Britain.
Friedrich von Steuben
Was a Russian military officer.
George Grenville
Was a British Whig statesman who rose to the position of Prime Minister of Great Britain.
George Washington
Was an American soldier and statesman who served as the first President of the United States from 1789 to 1797
Glorious Revolution
The transfer of the British monarchy from James ll to William and Mary in 1688-1689.
Great Awakening
A revival of religious feeling in the American Colonies during the 1730s and 1750s.
Headright System
The Virginia Company's policy of granting 50 acres of land to each settler and to each family member who accompanied him.
Hernando Cortes
Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca was a Spanish conquistador who led an expedition that caused the Fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castle in the early 16th Century
Hierarchy
A social ordering by rank or class.
Hohokam
A Native American group that lived in the valleys of the Salt and Gila rivers (in what is now Arizona) from about 300 b.c. to a.d. 1400.
Hopewell
A Mound Builder society that was centered in the Ohio River Valley and flourished from about 200 b.c. to a.d. 400.
Inca
A Native American people that around a.d. 1400 created an empire reaching nearly 2,500 miles along the west coast of South America.
Indentured Servant
A person who has contracted to work for another for a limited period, often in return for travel expenses, shelter, and sustenance.
Inflation
An increase in prices or decline in purchasing power caused by an increase in the supply of money.
Intolerable Acts
A series of laws enacted by Parliament in 1774 to punish Massachusetts colonists for the Boston Tea Party.
Iroquois
A group of Native American peoples inhabiting the woodlands of the Northeast.
Islam
A religion founded in Arabia in a.d. 622 by the prophet Muhammad; its believers are called Muslims.
Jamestown
The first permanent English settlement in North America, founded in 1607 in Virginia.
John Smith
An English explorer who helped found the colony at Jamestown, Virginia.
John Winthrop
A puritan political leader of the seventeenth century, born in England.
Joint-Stock Companies
Businesses in which investors pool their wealth for a common purpose.
Jonathan Edwards
An American clergyman of the 18th century, was in Great Awakening
Juan Ponce de Leon
Spanish explorer who accompanied Columbus on his second trip in 1493. He discovered Florida in 1513.
Kashaya Pomo
A Native American people that formerly inhabited the coastal marshlands of what is now California.
King George lll
The king of Britain during the American Revolutionary War.
King Philip's War
A conflict, in the years 1675-1676, between New England colonists and Native American groups allied under the leadership of the Wampanoag Chief Metacom
Kinship
The ties between members of a Family.
Kongo
A group of small kingdoms along the Zaire River in West-Central Africa, united under a single leader in the late 1400s.
Kwakiutl
A Native American people that formerly inhabited the northwestern coastal region of North America.
Lineage
A group of people descended from a common ancestor.
Loyalists
Colonists who supported the British government during the American Revolution.
Marquis de Lafayette
Was a french aristocrat and military who fought in the American Revolutionary War.
Martial Law
Temporary rule by military rather than civilian authority.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
During September 1630, Winthrop and the other colonists
aboard the Arbella established the colony.
Maya
A Native American people whose civilization flourished in Guatemala and the Yucatán Peninsula between about a.d. 250 and 900.
Mercantilism
An economic system in which nations seek to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by establishing a favorable balance of trade.
Mestizo
Of mixed Spanish and Native American ancestry
Metacom
Wampanoag leader who waged King Philips War (1675-1676) with New England colonists who had encroached on Native American territory.
Middle Passage
The voyage that brought enslaved Africans to the West Indies and later to North America.
Minutemen
Patriot civilian soldiers just before and during the Revolutionary War, pledged to be ready to fight at a minute's notice.
Mississippian
The last and most complex of the Mound Builder societies, inhabiting the Ohio and Mississippi Valleys from about a.d. 700 into the 1500s.
Nathaniel Bacon
Was a colonists of the Virginia Colony. Investigator of Bacon's Rebellion of 1676. He died of Dysentery.
Navigation Acts
A series of laws enacted by Parliament, beginning in 1651, to tighten England's control of trade in its American colonies.
New France
Was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Saint Lawrence River by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the session of New France to Spain and Great Britain in 1763
New Mexico
Colonized by Spain, the land that is now New Mexico became U.S. territory as part of the Gadsden Purchase in 1853.
New Netherland
A dutch colony in North America comprising the area along the Hudson River and the lower Delaware River.
New Spain
Was a spanish colony in the new world north of the Isthmus of Panama.
Nomadic
Having no fixed home, moving from place to place according to seasons and availability of food and water.
Nuclear Family
A household made up of a mother, a father, and their children.
Olive Branch Petition
A document sent by the Second Continental Congress to King George lll, proposing a reconciliation between the colonies and Britain.
Olmec
A Native American people whose civilization flourished in what is now Southern Mexico in the period 1200-400 b.c..
Parliament
The legislative body of England.
Patriots
Colonists who supported American independence from Britain.
Pequot War
A 1637 conflict in which the Pequot nation battled Connecticut colonists and their Narragansett allies.
Plantation
A large farm on which the labor of slaves or other workers is used to grow a single crop, such as sugarcane or cotton.
Plymouth Colony
The second permanent English colony in North America.
Pontiac
Was an Odawa war chief who became noted for his role in Pontiac's War.
Pope
The bishop of Rome as head of the Roman Catholic Church
Powhatan
A group of Native American peoples that lived in eastern Virginia at the time of the first English settlements there.
Prince Henry
Often called "Henry the Navigator," sent Portuguese ships to explore the west coast of Africa.
Proclamation of 1763
An order in which Britain prohibited its American colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains.
Profiteering
The selling of goods in short supply at inflated prices.
Proprietor
An owner-particularly one of those granted ownership of, and full governing rights over certain of the English colonies in North America.
Pueblo
A group of Native American peoples-descendants of the Anasazi-inhabiting the deserts of the Southwest.
Puritans
Members of a group that wanted to eliminate all traces of Roman Catholic ritual and traditions in the Church of England.
Quakers
Members of the Society of Friends, a religious group persecuted for its beliefs in 17th-century England.
Reformation
A religious movement in 16th century Europe, growing out of a desire for reform in the Roman Catholic Church and leading to the establishment of various Protestant Churches.
Renaissance
A period of European history, lasting from about 1400 to 1600 during which renewed interest in classical culture led to far-reaching changes in art, learning, and views of the world.
Roger Williams
A puritan religious leader of the seventeenth century.
Royal Colony
A colony under the direct control of the English Monarch
Salutary Neglect
An English policy of relaxing the enforcement of regulations in its colonies in return for the colonies' continued economic loyalty.
Samuel Adams
American Revolutionary leader and patron; an organizer of the Boston Tea Party and signer of the Declaration of Independence.
Saratoga
A major battle of the Revolutionary war, fought in 1777 in Northern New York State.
Savanna
A dry grassland dotted with trees and bushes, found in sub-Saharan Africa and other tropical or subtropical regions.
Second Continental Congress
The Continental Congress that convened in May 1775, approved the Declaration of Independence, and served as the only agency of national government during the Revolutionary War.
Separatist
A member of one of the Puritan groups that, denying the possibility of reform within the Church of England, established their own independent congregations.
Sir Edmund Andros
Was an English colonial administrator in North America.
Slave
A person who becomes the property of others.
Songhai
An empire that, at the height of its power in the 1500s, controlled much of West Africa
Stamp Act
A 1765 law in which Parliament established the first direct taxation of goods and services within the British colonies in North America.
Stono Rebellion
A 1739 uprising of slaves in South Carolina, leading to the tightening of already harsh slave laws.
Sugar Act
A trade law enacted by Parliament in 1764 in an attempt to reduce smuggling in the British colonies in North America.
Taino
A Native American people of the Caribbean islands-the first group encountered by Columbus and his men when they reached the Americas.
Thomas Jefferson
A political leader of the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
Townshend Acts
A series of laws enacted by Parliament in 1767, establishing indirect taxes on goods imported from Britain by the British colonies in North America.
Treaty of Paris (1783)
The treaty that ended the revolutionary war, confirming the independence of the United States and setting boundaries at the new nation.
Treaty of Tordesillas
The 1494 treaty in which Spain and Portugal agreed to divide the lands of the Western Hemisphere between them.
Trenton
A city and the capital of New Jersey, in the west part, an the Delaware River.
Triangular Trade
The transatlantic system of trade in which goods and people, including slaves, were exchanged between Africa, England, Europe, the West Indies, and the colonies in North America.
Valley Forge
A valley in eastern Pennsylvania that served as quarters for the American Army in one winter (1777-1778) of the Revolutionary War.
William Penn
Was an english real estate entrepreneur, philosopher, early quaker, and founder of the province of Pennsylvania, the English North American colony and the Future commonwealth of Pennsylvania
William Pitt
An english political leader of the 18th century.
Yorktown
The last battle of the Revolutionary war, fought in 1781 near the seacoast of Virginia.