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Research Methods - AP Psychology
Terms and concepts from a unit on Research Methods in AP Psychology
Terms in this set (44)
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon)
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumption, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidences, and assesses conclusions
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations.
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory.
a statement of procedures (operations) used to define research variables. (ex: memory may be defined as "number of words correctly recalled from a list").
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them.
Includes anyone or anything that could possibly be selected to be in the sample.
sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
a statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation.
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one of more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experiment controls other relevant factors.
Double-Blind Procedure (Study)
an experimental procedure in which both the research staff and the participants are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or placebo.
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance of condition, which is assumed to be an active agent.
tendency of some people to work harder and perform better when they are participants in an experiment. Individuals may change their behavior due to the attention they are receiving from researchers rather than because of any manipulation of independent variables.
Experimental Condition (Group)
the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
Control condition (Group)
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions(groups) by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups.
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
in psychology the behavior or mental process that is being measured; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
the most frequently occurring score in a distribution.
the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores.
the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it.
the difference between the highest and the lowest scores in a distribution.
APA Ethical Guidelines
these rules specify that researchers avoid procedures that might cause serious physical or mental harm to human subjects, protect confidentiality of the data, respect a subject's right to refuse at any time during the study; includes Informed Consent, Freedom to Withdraw, Debriefing, No Harm, and Confidentiality
a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence
the method used to observe and record behavior without manipulation (used in survey, case study, naturalistic observation)
research method that examines relationships between variables in order to analyze trends in data, test predictions, etc. (they do NOT discern cause and effect relationships)
in an experiment, a variable, other than the independent variable, that could influence the dependent variable
giving participants in a research study a complete explanation of the study after the study is completed; required by APA ethics guidelines
agreement to participate in psychology research, after being informed of the dangers and benefits of the research
Research conducted in order to solve practical problems.
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
a sample that is representative of the larger population
the selection of a random sample; each element of the population has an equal chance of been selected
scientific method of isolating and observing variables in a controlled environment
experiment conducted out in the world instead of a lab
a confounding variable that occurs when an experimenter unintentionally encourages participants to respond in a way that supports the hypothesis
study in which the subjects do not know if they are in the experimental or the control group
A correlation where as one variable increases, the other also increases, or as one decreases so does the other. Both variables move in the same direction.
the relationship between two variables in which one variable increases as the other variable decreases
Institutional Review Board (IRB)
a committee at each institution where research is conducted to review every experiment for ethics and methodology
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