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The Crusades

expeditions to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims

The Seljuk Turks

a Muslim people from central Asia that took Jerusalem

Pope Urban II

mounted a platform outside the church at Clermont, France


diplomatic forceful leader that untied the Muslim forces and captured Jerusalem

Richard I

king of England that assembled warriors for the third crusade


city where the Holy War takes place


area in the Byzantine Empire that was threatened by the Seljuk turks

Money economy

an ecnonomy based on money


business associations of merchants and artisans


artisans who owned shops and tools and employed less-skilled artisans as helpers


artisans who worked for a master without pay


an artisan who worked for a master for pay


a document that gave townspeople the right to control their own affairs


a system of learning that tried to bring together Aristotle's philosophy and the teachings of Church scholars


traveling poet-musicians


the language of everyday speech

Peter Abelard

taught theology in Paris during the early A.D. 1100s

Thomas Aquinas

In the A.D. 1200s the most important scholastic thinker

Dante Alighieri

wrote The Divine Comedy, an epic poem in Italian that describes an imaginary journey from hell to heaven

Geoffrey Chaucer

produced The Canterbury Tales.


controlled the Mediterranean trade after A.D. 1200


a region including present-day northern France and southwestern Belgium, became the center of trade on Europe's northern coast


The most famous fair was held there


in Italy where a law school was


assemblies in which nobles were powerful

Joan of Arc

the 17 year old who appeared at the court of France's king Charles VII

Louis XI

son of Charles VII strengthened the bureaucracy

Richard III

tried to rule well, but lacked widespread support

Henry VII

the first Tudor king

Ferdinand of Aragon

married Isabella of Castile, but had separate kingdoms

Isabella of Castile

married Ferdinand of Aragon, but had separate kingdoms


where the English were first victorious in 1346


where the English were first victorious in 1415


one of Europe's most prosperous areas


central Muslim area in Spain, where Isabella ruled


Muslim area on the Mediterranean Coast, where Ferdinand ruled

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