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36 terms

chapter 13

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The Crusades
expeditions to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims
The Seljuk Turks
a Muslim people from central Asia that took Jerusalem
Pope Urban II
mounted a platform outside the church at Clermont, France
Saladin
diplomatic forceful leader that untied the Muslim forces and captured Jerusalem
Richard I
king of England that assembled warriors for the third crusade
Jerusalem
city where the Holy War takes place
Constantinople
area in the Byzantine Empire that was threatened by the Seljuk turks
Money economy
an ecnonomy based on money
guild
business associations of merchants and artisans
masters
artisans who owned shops and tools and employed less-skilled artisans as helpers
aprentice
artisans who worked for a master without pay
journeyman
an artisan who worked for a master for pay
charter
a document that gave townspeople the right to control their own affairs
scholasticism
a system of learning that tried to bring together Aristotle's philosophy and the teachings of Church scholars
troubadours
traveling poet-musicians
vernacular
the language of everyday speech
Peter Abelard
taught theology in Paris during the early A.D. 1100s
Thomas Aquinas
In the A.D. 1200s the most important scholastic thinker
Dante Alighieri
wrote The Divine Comedy, an epic poem in Italian that describes an imaginary journey from hell to heaven
Geoffrey Chaucer
produced The Canterbury Tales.
Venice
controlled the Mediterranean trade after A.D. 1200
Flanders
a region including present-day northern France and southwestern Belgium, became the center of trade on Europe's northern coast
Champagne
The most famous fair was held there
Bologna
in Italy where a law school was
Cortes
assemblies in which nobles were powerful
Joan of Arc
the 17 year old who appeared at the court of France's king Charles VII
Louis XI
son of Charles VII strengthened the bureaucracy
Richard III
tried to rule well, but lacked widespread support
Henry VII
the first Tudor king
Ferdinand of Aragon
married Isabella of Castile, but had separate kingdoms
Isabella of Castile
married Ferdinand of Aragon, but had separate kingdoms
Crécy
where the English were first victorious in 1346
Agincourt
where the English were first victorious in 1415
Burgundy
one of Europe's most prosperous areas
Castile
central Muslim area in Spain, where Isabella ruled
Aragon
Muslim area on the Mediterranean Coast, where Ferdinand ruled