expeditions to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims
The Seljuk Turks
a Muslim people from central Asia that took Jerusalem
Pope Urban II
mounted a platform outside the church at Clermont, France
diplomatic forceful leader that untied the Muslim forces and captured Jerusalem
king of England that assembled warriors for the third crusade
city where the Holy War takes place
area in the Byzantine Empire that was threatened by the Seljuk turks
an ecnonomy based on money
business associations of merchants and artisans
artisans who owned shops and tools and employed less-skilled artisans as helpers
artisans who worked for a master without pay
an artisan who worked for a master for pay
a document that gave townspeople the right to control their own affairs
a system of learning that tried to bring together Aristotle's philosophy and the teachings of Church scholars
the language of everyday speech
taught theology in Paris during the early A.D. 1100s
In the A.D. 1200s the most important scholastic thinker
wrote The Divine Comedy, an epic poem in Italian that describes an imaginary journey from hell to heaven
produced The Canterbury Tales.
controlled the Mediterranean trade after A.D. 1200
a region including present-day northern France and southwestern Belgium, became the center of trade on Europe's northern coast
The most famous fair was held there
in Italy where a law school was
assemblies in which nobles were powerful
Joan of Arc
the 17 year old who appeared at the court of France's king Charles VII
son of Charles VII strengthened the bureaucracy
tried to rule well, but lacked widespread support
the first Tudor king
Ferdinand of Aragon
married Isabella of Castile, but had separate kingdoms
Isabella of Castile
married Ferdinand of Aragon, but had separate kingdoms
where the English were first victorious in 1346
where the English were first victorious in 1415
one of Europe's most prosperous areas
central Muslim area in Spain, where Isabella ruled
Muslim area on the Mediterranean Coast, where Ferdinand ruled
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