25 terms

Gateway: Genetics & Biological Traits

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DNA
a long molecule composed of building blocks called nucleotides.
nucleus
where DNA is found in a cell
functions of DNA
store & transmit genetic
information and to direct the synthesis of proteins
double helix
a twisted ladder or spiral staircase made up of DNA
S phase of Interphase
Replication occurs as cells prepare to divide
semi-conservative
each newly created strand is ½ old DNA and ½ new DNA.
mutation
any permanent change in a DNA sequence
point mutations
an extra base is inserted into the DNA or when a base is mistakenly left out
cell division
the process by which body cells divide to produce 2 new cells
somatic cells
body cells
parent cell
the original cell
the 2 new cells produced
daughter cells
cell cycle
a series of events cells go through as they grow and divide
interphase
a period of cell growth and development
mitosis
division of the nucleus into 2 nuclei, each with the same number of chromosomes
Cytokinesis
the division of the rest of the cell (cytoplasm and organelles) after the nucleus divides during mitosis
heredity
the transmission of traits from one generation to the next
genes
hereditary units that carry coded information
meiosis
a type of cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes in the parent cell by half and produces four gamete cells
homologous chromosomes
chromosome pairs of the same length, centromere position, staining pattern, and gene possession for the same characters
diploid
two sets
haploid
one set
goal of meiosis
reduce the number of chromosomes from a diploid number to a haploid number in preparation for sexual reproduction
karyotype
A display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape.
adaptation
any alteration in the structure or function of an organism or any of its parts that results from natural selection and by which the organism becomes better fitted to survive and multiply in its environment
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