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Chapter 1: Psychological Science
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Key Concepts:
Terms in this set (33)
What is the performance error in overconfidence?
We overestimate our performance, our rate of work, our skills, and our degree of self-control.
What is the accuracy error in overconfidence?
We overestimate the accuracy of our knowledge. People are much more certain than they are accurate.
What is the danger of perceiving order in random events?
Thinking you can make a prediction from a random series.
Why do we use hindsight bias?
It might be an offshoot of our useful habit of analyzing an event and trying to figure out why it occurred
Why do we use perceiving order?
helps us make predictions; we just need to test these and not overdue it
Why do we have overconfidence error?
It might help us lead other people; certainty builds confidence in followers more than accuracy does.
What is the scientific attitude?
curiosity, skeptical, humility
What is curiosity?
Always asking new questions
What does being skeptical mean?
Not accepting a 'fact' as true without challenging it; seeing if 'facts' can withstand attempts to disprove them
What does humility mean?
Seeking the truth rather than trying to be right; a scientist needs to be able to accept being wrong
What does critical thinking mean?
analyzing information to decide if it makes sense rather than simply accepting it.
What is a theory?
The big picture: a set of principles, built on observations and facts, that explains phenomenon and predicts future behavior
What is a hypothesis?
a testable prediction consistent with our theory
What does replicating research mean?
trying it again using the same operational definitions of the concepts and procedures
What is a case study?
observing and gathering information to compile an in-depth study of one individual
What is naturalistic observation?
Gathering data about behavior; watching but not intervening
What are surveys and interviews?
Having people report on their own attitudes and behavior
What is random sampling?
a technique for making sure that every individual in a population has an equal chance of being in your sample
What does random mean?
You selection of participants is driven only by chance, not by any characteristic
What is the correlation coefficient?
A number/index representing the strength and direction of correlation
What does the strength of correlation mean?
How close the dots are to a straight line, which means one variable changes exactly as the other does; this number varies from -1.00 to +1.00
What is the direction of correlation?
Positive (variables increase/decrease together OR negative (one goes up, other goes down)
How do we find out about causation?
...
What does experimentation mean?
manipulating one factor in a situation to determine its effects
What is the independent variable?
The variable we are able to manipulate independently of what the other variables are doing
What is the dependent variable?
The variable we expect to experience a change which depends on the manipulation we're doing
What are confounding variables?
The other variables that might have an effect on the dependent variable
Why doe we need statistical reasoning?
Our observations might give a misleading picture because of personal biases or assumptions
What are the value of statistics?
1) to present a more accurate picture of our data than we would see otherwise
2) to help us reach valid conclusions from our data; critical thinking tool
What are the measures of central tendency?
mode, mean, median
What is the mode?
the most common level/number/score
What is the mean?
The sum of the scores, divided by the number of scores
What is the median?
The number/level that half of people scored above and half of them scored below
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