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Abigail Adams

Wife of John Adams. During the Revolutionary War, she wrote letters to her husband describing life on the homefront. She urged her husband to remember America's women in the new government he was helping to create.

Molly Pitcher

heroine of the American Revolution who carried water to soldiers during the Battle of Monmouth Court House and took over her husband's gun when he was overcome by heat (1754-1932)

Camp Followers

women who followed their men by choice or economics into war, kept morale up and performed household tasks

Daughters of Liberty

This orginization supported the boycott of British goods. They urged Americans to wear homemade fabrics and produce other goods that were previously available only from Britain. They believed that way, the American colonies would become economically independent.

Republican Motherhood

instill republican values on your children

Lowell system

was a paternalistic textile factory system of the early 19th century that employed mainly young women [age 15-35] from New England farms to increase efficiency, productivity and profits in ways different from other methods

Cult of Domesticity

the ideal woman was seen as a tender, self-sacrificing caregiver who provided a nest for her children and a peaceful refuge for her husband, social customs that restricted women to caring for the house

Seperate Spheres

Nineteenth-century idea in Western societies that men and women, especially of the middle class, should have different roles in society: women as wives, mothers, and homemakers; men as breadwinners and participants in business and politics (711)

Lyceum Movement

Developed in the 1800's in response to growing interest in higher education. Associations were formed in nearly every state to give lectures, concerts, debates, scientific demonstrations, and entertainment. This movement was directly responsible for the increase in the number of institutions of higher learning.

Grimke Sisters

Angelina and Sarah Grimke wrote and lectured vigorously on reform causes such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and the abolitionist movement.

Putting Out system

the raw cotton was distributed to peasant families who spun it into thread and then wove the thread into cloth in their won homes

Lucretia Mott

was an American Quaker minister, abolitionist, social reformer and proponent of women's rights. She is credited as the first American "feminist" in the early 1800s but was, more accurately, the initiator of women's political advocacy.


a nineteenth-century movement in the Romantic tradition, which held that every individual can reach ultimate truths through spiritual intuition, which transcends reason and sensory experience.

Margret Fuller

publish the book "Women, in the 19th century"

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

A member of the women's right's movement in 1840. She was a mother of seven, and she shocked other feminists by advocating suffrage for women at the first Women's Right's Convention in Seneca, New York 1848. Stanton read a "Declaration of Sentiments" which declared "all men and women are created equal."

Harriet Beecher Stowe

United States writer of a novel about slavery that advanced the abolitionists' cause (1811-1896)

Seneca Falls Convention

Took place in upperstate New York in 1848. Women of all ages and even some men went to discuss the rights and conditions of women. There, they wrote the Declaration of Sentiments, which among other things, tried to get women the right to vote.

Susan B. Anthony

social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation

Amelia Bloomer

An American women's rights and temperance advocate. She presented her views in her own monthly paper, The Lily, which she began publishing in 1849. When Amelia was 22, she married a lawyer by the name of Dexter Bloomer. One of the major causes promoted by Amelia was a change in dress standards for women so that they would be less restrictive.

the Declaration of Sentiments

met on July 16 to look for examples that they could model their own manifesto after; they eventually modeled it after the declaration of independence but called it the declaration of sentiments - Focused in mans injustice to women - Covertures- woman was legally covered by her father or husband to the extent that she had no rights of her own; wanted to end it - Married women's property act- allowed women to own earnings in her own name - Had twelve resolutions; resolution nine was the worst because it called for a right to vote and Mott felt that this one was extreme and would take away from all of the other resolutions especially the one relating to covertures

American Anti-SLavery Society

Founded in 1833 by William Lloyd Garrison and other abolitionists. Garrison burned the Constitution as a proslavery document. Argued for "no Union with slaveholders" until they repented for their sins by freeing their slaves.

Sojourner Truth

United States abolitionist and feminist who was freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women (1797-1883)

William Lloyd Garrison

1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.

Harriet Tubman

American abolitionist. Born a slave on a Maryland plantation, she escaped to the North in 1849 and became the most renowned conductor on the Underground Railroad, leading more than 300 slaves to freedom.

Lydia Maria Child

This white woman wrote popular and highly successful historical novels. In 1831, she attended a public meeting where she heard William Lloyd Garrison give a speech against slavery. She was moved and in 1833, her book, An Appeal in Favor of that Class of Americans Called Africans, was published. The book was powerful and caused

Dorthea Dix

Tireless reformer, who worked mightily to improve the treatment of the mentally ill. Appointed superintendant of women nurses for the Union forces.

Mother Ann Lee

A Quaker woman who came from England in 1774. She gathered believers around her and claimed that God had told her that the source of all evil was sexual intercourse.


church founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 with headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah, religious group that emphasized moderation, saving, hard work, and risk-taking; moved from IL to UT


The Perfectionist Utopian movement began in New York. People lived in a commune and shared everything, even marriages. Today, the town is known for manufacturing silverware.

Brooke Farm

an experiment in Utopian socialism which lasted for 6 years (1841-1847) in New Roxbury, MA. It was created by George Ripley as a thinking tank, combining high thinking and plain living. It survived only because of an excellent community school, which many from outside the community paid to send their children too.

New Hope

utopian community


written by Henry David Thoreau; a personal account of his life spent in a cabin on the edge of Walden Pond, where he lived simply and found truth


marriage to several people at the same time

Second Great Awakening

A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.

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