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IB Psychology Bio
Terms in this set (40)
a theory that seems to over-simplify human behavior or cognitive processes, and in doing so, neglects to explain the complexities of the mind.
3 Principles of the bio loa
1.) Emotions and behaviours are products of the anatomy and physiology of the nervous and endocrine systems
2.) Animal research may inform our understanding of human behavior
3.) Patterns of behaviour can be inherited; behaviour is innate because it is genetically based
the study of the nervous system in the context of both diseased and healthy states.
Localization of function
the idea that different parts of the brain are responsible for specific behaviors, or that certain functions are localized to certain areas in the brain.
a part of the limbic system. The limbic system is the area in the brain that is associated with memory, emotions, and motivation. The limbic system is located just above the brain stem and below the cortex. The hippocampus itself is highly involved with our memories.
the basic component part, or cellular unit which makes up the nervous system and which acts as the tracks or routes which waves of excitation travel across.
the brain's ability to change and adapt as a result of experience. When people say that the brain possesses plasticity, they are not suggesting that the brain is similar to plastic.
a non-invasive diagnostic procedure which causes Hydrogen in the tissues of the body respond to the magnet passing by vibrating which can be interpreted by a computer to form a 3D image.
functional magnetic resonance imaging: a technique that directly measures the blood flow in the brain, thereby providing information on brain activity.
the branch-like structures of each neuron that extend into synapses with other neurons and that receive neurochemical messages sent into synapses by other neurons.
the part of each hemisphere of the brain located behind the forehead that serves to regulate and mediate the higher intellectual functions. The frontal lobes are important for controlling thoughts, reasoning, and behaviors.
of or relating to examination of the body after death.
Rosenzweig and Bennet (1972)
The role of environmental stimulation on brain plasticity. Investigated whether environmental factors such as a rich or an impoverished environment affect development of neurons in the cerebral cortex on rats.
Dimasio et al (1994)
Aimed to investigate oxytocin and trust relationship when economical decisions were to be made.
the most famous patient to have survived severe damage to the brain and the first from whom something was learned about the relation between personality and the function of the front parts (the frontal lobes) of the brain.
Corkin et al. (1997) Scoville and Milner (1957) Damage to the hippocampus and amnesia in the case of HM.
the end of an axon or an axon branch, which forms a synapse on a neuron or other target.
the small bulblike structures that are located at the branching ends of the axons (long, threadlike nerve cells) that hold vesicles (small sacs) that contain neurotransmitters (chemicals that stimulate brain cells).
a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron.
a chemical messenger that carries, boosts, and modulates signals between neurons and other cells in the body.
Martinez and Kessner
Martinez and Kesner (1991) ACh in memory formation. Experimental study that aimed to investigate the role of ACh in memory formation.
is a neurotransmitter that helps control the brain's reward and pleasure centers. Dopamine also helps regulate movement and emotional responses, and it enables us not only to see rewards, but to take action to move toward them.
a chemical that is found between the nerve synapses, or gaps, between nerve cells. When activated, it causes the contraction of skeletal muscles and activates glandular functions in the endocrine system.
a corticosteroid hormone produced by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex (in the adrenal gland). It is a vital hormone that is often referred to as the "stress hormone" as it is involved in the response to physical and psychological stress.
chemical messengers secreted by cell or gland. These messengers are sent out from one part of the body to affect cells in other parts of the body. Hormones are often released directly into the bloodstream, but they may also be secreted into ducts. Hormones can have a wide range of effects on the body.
a feeling of strain and pressure. Small amounts of stress may be desired, beneficial, and even healthy. Positive stress helps improve athletic performance. It also plays a factor in motivation, adaptation, and reaction to the environment. Excessive amounts of stress, however, may lead to bodily harm.
an approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological traits such as memory, perception, and language from a modern evolutionary perspective. It seeks to identify which human psychological traits are evolved adaptations - that is, the functional products of natural selection or sexual selection.
Fessler et al (2005) Elevated disgust sensitivity in the first trimester of pregnancy.
a field of study concerned with the genetic (inborn) and situational (from the environment) influences on behavior. It is essentially the study of the 'nature vs, nurture' debate.
The basic biological units of heredity. Segments of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) needed to contribute to a function.
the heredity of complex characters that are determined by a large number of genes, each one usually having a relatively small effect.
a double-stranded helix of nucleotides which carries the genetic information of a cell. It encodes the information for the proteins and is able self-replicate.
monozygotic twins (also known as identical twins) occur when a single fertilized egg splits into two separate embryos which then implant into the uterus. Monozygotic twins share identical DNA at birth because they were originally the same single egg.
refers to the conception of fraternal (non-identical) twins. This occurs when a female's ovary releases two eggs into the uterus that are both fertilized. These two separate gametes differentiate into two separate fetuses that mature into fraternal twins.
definition: Studied identical twins separated at birth
application: Bouchard conducted the Minnesota twin study of the Jim twins
the serotonin transporter protein (5-HTT/SLC6A4) transports the neurotransmitter serotonin from synapses to presynaptic neurons.
the standards that members of a profession must follow. In psychology, APA's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct lays out standards for psychologists and identifies behaviors that deserve punishment.
a measure of how test performance predicts behaviours in real-world settings. Although test designs and findings in studies characterized by low ecological validity cannot be generalized to real-life situations, those characterized by high ecological validity can be.
the use of a descriptive research approach to obtain an in-depth analysis of a person, group, or phenomenon. A variety of techniques may be employed including personal interviews, direct-observation, psychometric tests, and archival records.
a type of research often used in psychology as a preliminary way to gather information about a topic or in situations where performing an experiment is not possible. The correlational method involves looking at relationships between two or more variables.