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Hands-On Ethical Hacking and Network Defense 2nd Edition


A TCP flag that acknowledges a TCP packet with SYN-ACK flags set.

connection-oriented protocol

A protocol for transferring data over a network that requires a session connection before data is sent. In TCP/IP this step is accomplished by sending a SYN packet.


With a connectionless protocol, no session connection is required before data is transmitted. UDP and IP are examples of connectionless protocols.

initial sequence number (ISN)

A number that keeps track of what packets a node has received.

Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)

The organization responsible for assigning IP addresses.

Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)

The protocol used to send informational messages and test network connectivity.


The logical component of a connection that identifies the service running on a network device. For example, port 110 is the POP3 mail service.


A language used to transmit data across a network infrastructure.

session hijacking

An attack on a network that requires guessing ISNs. See also initial sequence number (ISN).


A TCP flag that signifies the beginning of a session.


A reply to a SYN packet sent by a host.

TCP flag

The six flags in a TCP header are switches that can be set to on or off to indicate the status of a port or service.

Three-way handshake

The method the Transport layer uses to create a connection-oriented session

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)

The main protocol used to connect computers over the Internet.

User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

A fast, unreliable Transport layer protocol that's connectionless.

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