Upgrade to remove ads
Systems Analysis and Design Chapter 10 Review
Terms in this set (30)
What is a project?
As defined in Chapter 1, a project is a planned undertaking, with a beginning and end that produces a well-defined result or product.
What is the range of sizes of an information system development project?
Some system development projects are very large, requiring thousands of hours of work by many people and spanning several calendar years. Many smaller projects still require several months to deploy.
What is the system development life cycle (SDLC)?
SDLC is the term used to describe the process and methodology for developing, deploying, and maintaining a software system. A particular SDLC will include a description of the methods, the tools, techniques, models, and project management processes that are used in the development of a new system. It is called a life cycle because it can cover the entire life of a system from initial idea to deployment to ongoing maintenance.
What characteristics of a project call for a predictive approach to the SDLC?
Predictive: Projects are well understood—technology is well known; user requirements are well known; development methodology is well known; project team is experienced and familiar with the system; and there are few known risks.
What characteristics of a project call for an adaptive approach to the SDLC?
Adaptive: Projects are not well understood—technology is new or unfamiliar; requirements are not very clear; team is not experienced with the type of system or methodology.
What are the six phases of the traditional predictive SDLC?
1. Project initiation
2. Project planning
5. Implementation (programming)
Explain how the waterfall model of the SDLC controls the changes that occur during a project.
The pure waterfall attempts to specify completely the requirements during the analysis phase, and then tries to "freeze" those requirements so that things do not change. Another solution is to have a modified waterfall so that additional analysis (i.e. specifying new requirements) can be done as the project progresses. However, neither situation is well suited to handle big changes during the life of a project.
Explain the advantages of having the phases of a predictive SDLC overlap.
As indicated in Question 8, having overlap allows the project to handle ongoing analysis and requirements definition even after design and programming have begun. Another advantage is that the development team can work more efficiently by doing design and even programming on those requirements and specifications that are being worked on (i.e. in analysis).
What organizing concept is included in all adaptive SDLCs?
Adaptive SDLCs are all oriented to being able to handle changing requirements during the life of the project. All include iterations as the method to be able to integrate newly discovered requirements into the project work.
For an adaptive SDLC, explain what goes on during each iteration.
Each iteration is like a mini-project. Within each iteration, the activities related to the phases of the predictive SDLC occur, e.g. planning, analysis, design, implementation, and deployment.
The SDLC used in this text is based on what adaptive SDLC?
The SDLC used in this text is a simplification of and variation on the Unified Process (UP), which is a well-known and well-accepted formal iterative approach.
What are the core processes in the SDLC used in this book, and what traditional predictive SDLC phase corresponds to each process?
1. Identify the problem and obtain approval - Initiation Phase
2. Plan and monitor the project - Planning Phase
3. Discover and understand details - Analysis Phase
4. Design system components - Design Phase
5. Build, test, and integrate system components - Implementation Phase
6. Complete system tests and deploy the solution - Deployment Phase
What is the iterative approach that involves completing and deploying part of an application over a few iterations and then completing and deploying another part of that application after a few more iterations?
This is usually referred to as incremental development. A variation of incremental development that builds the entire structure at first is called a walking skeleton.
Why do adaptive SDLCs not explicitly include the support phase?
Support does not fit into an "iteration" project model. Hence, the Support Phase is either treated as separate follow-on projects, or it reverts back to the predictive model and becomes a Support Phase.
What is a system development methodology?
A methodology is more than just a method. It is an entire set of guidelines and procedures to develop a new system. Included in the components of a methodology would be what modeling approach to use, what tools, what techniques to do analysis and design and programming. A methodology provides the guidelines for the entire development process.
What are some examples of models included in a methodology?
In a systems development methodology there would be graphical models, such as class diagrams and use case diagrams. There would also be descriptive models such as use case descriptions. There are also models associated with the management of the project such as Gantt chart or NPV spreadsheet. (See Fig 8-9)
What are some examples of techniques included in a methodology?
Techniques have to do with completing specific tasks or activities. Examples might be how to model use cases, or how to develop a class diagram. User-interface design uses techniques such as story boards. Other techniques might be how to interview users etc. (See Fig 8-11)
What are some examples of tools included in a methodology?
Tools might include drawing tools, such as Microsoft Visio, or an Integrated Development Tool (IDE), such as Struts, Eclipse, or Netbeans. Testing tools are also often used for program tests. (See Fig 8-10)
What is Agile development?
Agile development is a philosophy and set of guidelines for developing information systems in an unknown, rapidly changing environment, and consists of a statement of core philosophy and a set of values or guidelines for how to build models.
What are the four "values" reflected in Agile development?
The four basic values of the core philosophy are:
Value responding to change over following a plan
Value individuals and interactions over processes and tools
Value working software over comprehensive documentation
Value customer collaboration over contract negotiation
What is Agile modeling (AM)?
Agile modeling is a guiding philosophy about modeling. Only models that are necessary to move the project forward and that are really needed for the development of the software.
What are the 12 Agile modeling principles?
1. Develop software as your primary goal.
2. Enable the next effort as your secondary goal.
3. Minimize your modeling activity—few and simple.
4. Embrace change, and change incrementally.
5. Model with a purpose.
6. Build multiple models.
7. Build high-quality models and get feedback rapidly.
8. Focus on content rather than representation.
9. Learn from each other with open communication.
10. Know your models and how to use them.
11. Adapt to specific project needs.
12. Maximize Stakeholder ROI
What are the four UP phases, and what is the objective of each?
• Inception - to understand the overall scope and objective of the new system, to make the business case and get it approved, and to make an overall plan and estimate the size and schedule.
• Elaboration - to identify and describe all the requirements, to finalize the scope, and to design and build the core functionality, and to address the major risks.
• Construction - to finish building all the components of the new system and prepare for deployment.
• Transition - to complete testing, convert the data, and deploy the new system
What are the six UP development disciplines?
• Business modeling
• Determine Requirements
• Design the solution
• Implement the solution
• Test the new system
• Deploy the new system
What are the three UP support disciplines?
• Configuration and change management - handle the changes and configure the work processes
• Project Management - Manage all activities of the project
• Environment - Determine and set up the development and production environments
Why is the word extreme included as part of Extreme Programming?
The fundamental idea of extreme programming is to take the very best principles and practices of iterative development and implement them in the extreme, or in the very best manner possible. And to focus on those practices intensely.
List the core values of XP
The core values are
• Communication - ensure open and frequent and accurate and complete communication
• Simplicity - choose the simple solution and the simple approach
• Feedback - establish procedures to promote rapid feedback from users and other developers
• Courage - have the courage to do the right thing, even if there is a price to pay
List the XP practices.
There are 12 XP practices:
3. Pair Programming
4. Simple Designs
5. Refactoring the code
6. Owning the code collectively
7. Continuous integration
8. On-site customer
9. System metaphor
10. Small releases
11. Forty-hour work week
12. Coding standards
What is the product backlog used for in a Scrum project?
The product backlog is where the requirements are identified and documented. The requirements are prioritized on this list and the list is used to select those requirements that are to worked on during the next sprint. It is controlled by the user. He/She decides what is on the list and what the priorities are and works with the Scrum Master to decide what can be implemented next.
Explain how a Scrum sprint works.
A Scrum sprint is usually a 30 day intense work period where a particular part of the system is implemented. A set of requirements are chosen from the Product Backlog and decided upon. The Scrum team organizes themselves and makes assignments as to how the sprint is to proceed. The scope of the Sprint is then frozen. The time period is set.
Every day during the Sprint, the Scrum master has a short daily scrum meeting where developers report on what they have accomplished, project what they will have done by the next meeting, and identify obstacles or roadblocks that are impeding progress.
At the end of the sprint the identified requirements should have been implemented and deployed.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Systems Analysis and Design - Chapter 1
Systems Analysis and Design - Chapter 2
Systems Analysis and Design - Chapter 3
Systems Analysis and Design - Chapter 4
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
13: Systems Development
MSIS CH. 9
MIS 3305 Test 3 (Esserman) - Chapter 12
MIS Quiz #2
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Network exam 2
Network exam 1
MIS 34070 exam 1