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AP Environmental Science Chapter 1 & 2
Terms in this set (87)
Anything that takes up space and has mass
Measure of the amount of matter it contains (remains the same no matter what, gravity, etc.)
Smallest particle that contains the chemical properties of an element
Substance composed of atoms, cannot be broken down
List of all elements currently known
Particles containing more than one atom
Molecules that contain more than one element
# of Protons in the nucleus
# of Protons + # of Neutrons
Different # of Neutrons
Release of material from the nucleus. Breaks it down into a simpler element.
Time it takes for 1/2 the original radioactive parent atom to decay.
Sharing electrons (stronger)
Steals electrons (weaker)
Weakest chemical bond between an electronegative hydrogen atom and another electronegative atom
One side more positive and one side more negative
Cohesion of water molecules at the surface of water.
Adhesion of water molecules to a surface is stronger than cohesion between the molecules. (Paper towel. sponge)
Substance contributing hydrogen ions to a solution
Substance contributing hydroxide ions to a solution
Shows strength of acids and bases
When atoms separate from the molecules they are a part of or recombine with other molecules.
Law of Conservation of Matter
Matter can't be created or destroyed
made from elements other than carbon
Compounds that contain carbon
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen. Glucose Monosacharides etc.
Amino acids, chains, etc.
DNA, RNA. Organic compounds in all living cells. Genetic material to be passed down.
Nonpolar Molecules, high energy, etc.
Highly organized living entity that consists of 4 types of macro-molecules and other stuff in a watery solution. Surrounded by a membrane.
Ability to do work or transfer heat
Visible, UV Infrared energies
Massless packets of energy that travel at the speed of light.
Amount of energy used when a 1 watt light bulb is turned on for 1 second. (Very small)
Rate at which work is done
Stored Energy/Energy being used
Energy is not created or destroyed/As energy is used, the ability to do work is diminished.
Ration of the amount of work that is done to the total amount of energy that is introduced into the system to begin with.
Ease which an energy source can be used for work
Randomness in a system always increasing.
A system in which matter can enter from or escape to the surroundings.
A system in which no matter is allowed to enter or leave
Stuff goes in/out
Determining inputs, outputs and changes in the system under different conditions
Inputs = Outputs. No change to the system
Rate of the process feeding back into the system
Negative Feedback loop
When a system responds to change by returning to its original state, or at least by decreasing the rate at which the change is occurring.
Positive Feedback Loop
When a system responds to change by increasing the rate at which the change is occurring.
Adaptive Management Plan
Planning for future problems.
Sum of all conditions that influence life
Field that looks at interactions between human systems and those in nature
Set of interacting components -> exchange energy/materials.
Particular location on earth that includes living/nonliving things
Person who participates in environmentalism
Broad field including environmental policy, economics and ethics
Process by which life-supporting resources such as clean water, timber and crops are produced
Describe the state of an environmental system
Diversity of life forms in an environment
Measure of genetic variation among individuals in a population
Group of organisms that is distinct from other groups in its structure, behavior and other properties
The evolution of a new species (1-3 new per year
Background Extinction Rate
Rate at which something goes extinct (1 per million years)
Measure of the diversity of habitats that exist in a region
CO2 helps keep the earths temperature constant.
Derived from human activities
Improvement in human well-being through economic advancement
Development that balances current human well being and economic advancement with resource management
Love of life, connections that humans seek with the rest of life.
How much someone consumes in an area of land.
Objective way to explore the natural world
Testable explanation about how something works.
Can be falsified
Doing it again
Total number in a sample
How close each time to each other
Estimate of calculated value differing from the real value
Process of making general statements from specific facts.
Process of applying a general statement to specific facts
the objective analysis and evaluation of an issue in order to form a judgment.
Hypothesis with wide acceptance
Theory to which there are no exceptions
Group that was not given any change
Natural events are studied (streams, erosion)
achieving equity and a fair sharing of environmental burdens and benefits
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