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Psychology Exam 3
Terms in this set (105)
The child's cognitive representation of self, the substance and content of the child's self-conceptions.
Development that involves thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding rules and conventions about what people should do in their interactions with other people.
The first stage of moral development in Piaget's theory, occurring from approximately 4 to 7 years of age. Justice and rules are conceived of as unchangeable properties of the world, removed from the control of people.
In Piaget's theory, displayed by older children (about 10 years of age and older). The child becomes aware that rules and laws are created by people and that in judging an action one should consider the actor's intentions as well as the consequences.
Piaget's concept that if a rule is broken, punishment will be meted out immediately
The sense of being male or female, which most children acquire by the time they are 3 years old
sets of expectations that prescribe how females or males should think, act, and feel.
social role theory
A theory that gender differences result from the contrasting roles of men and women
Psychoanalytic theory of gender
A theory deriving from Freud's view that the preschool child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent, by approximately 5 or 6 years of age renounces this attraction because of anxious feelings, and subsequently identifies with the same sex parent, unconsciously adopting the same sex parent's characteristics
Social cognitive theory of gender
A theory that emphasizes that children's gender development occurs through the observation and imitation of gender behavior and through the rewards and punishments children experience for gender-appropriate and gender-inappropriate behavior
gender schema theory
the theory that gender typing emerges as children gradually develop gender schemas of what is gender appropriate and gender inappropriate in their culture
A restrictive punitive style in which parents exhort the child to follow their directions and to respect work and effort. The authoritarian parent places firm limits and controls on the child and allows little verbal exchange. Authoritarian parenting is associated with children's social incompetence. Demanding, controlling, Rejecting and unresponsive
A parenting style in which parents encourage their children to be independent but still place limits and controls on their actions. Extensive verbal give and take is allowed, and parents are warm and nurturant toward the child. Authoritative parenting is associated with children's social competence. Demanding, controlling, accepting, responsive
A style of parenting in which the parent is very uninvolved in the child's life; it is associated with children's social incompetence, especially a lack of self control. Undemanding, uncontrolling, rejecting, unresponsive.
A style of parenting in which parents are highly involved with their children but place few demands or controls on them. Indulgent parenting is associated with children's social incompetence, especially a lack of self-control. Undemanding, uncontrolling, accepting, responsive.
Child may stand in one spot or perform random movements that do not seem to have a goal
Child plays alone and independently of others. does not care much about anything else that is happening
Child watches other children play. Child may talk and ask questions with other children but does not enter into their play
Child plays separately from others but with toys like those the others are using in a manner that mimics their play.
involves social interaction with little or no organization. More interested in each other than in the task
social interaction in a group with organized activity. Competition aimed at winning
Behavior engaged in by infants to derive pleasure from exercising their existing sensorimotor schemes
play that involves repetition of behavior when new skills are being learned or when physical or mental mastery and coordination of skills are required for games or sports
Play in which the child transforms the physical environment into a symbol
play that involves social interactions with peers
play that combines sensorimotor and repetitive activity with symbolic representation of ideas. Constructive lay occurs when children engage in self-regulated creation or construction of a product or a problem solution.
Activities engaged in for pleasure that include rules and often competition with one or more individuals
Describes a child who has difficulty in learning that involves understanding or using spoken or written language, and the difficulty can appear in listening, thinking, reading, writing,and spelling.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
A disability in which children consistently show one or more of the following characteristics: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)
Also called pervasive developmental disorders, they range from the severe disorder labeled autistic disorder to the milder disorder called Asperger syndrome. These disorders are characterized by problems in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and repetitive behaviors.
Individualized education plan (IEP)
A written statement that spells out a program tailored to a child with a disability
Least restrictive environment(LRE)
The concept that a child with a disability must be educated in a setting that is a similar as possible to the one in which children who do not have a disability are educated.
Educating a child with special education needs full-time in the regular classroom.
The concrete operation that involves ordering stimuli along a quantitative dimension (such as length)
The ability to logically combine relations to understand certain conclusions.
Developmentalists who have elaborated on Piaget's theory giving more emphasis to how children use attention, memory, and strategies to process information.
A relatively permanent type of memory that holds huge amounts of information for a long period of time
consist of deliberate mental activities to improve the processing of information
An important strategy that involves engaging in more extensive processing of information
fuzzy trace theory
States that memory is best understood by considering two types of memory representations: verbatim and gist. Older children's better memory is attributed to the fuzzy traces, created by extracting the gist of information.
manipulating and transforming information in memory
Thinking reflectively and productively, as well as evaluating the evidence
The ability to think in novel and unusual ways and to come up with unique solutions to problems
Thinking that produces one correct answer and is characteristic of the kind of thinking tested by standardized intelligence tests
Thinking that produces many answers to the same question and is characteristic of creativity
Cognition about cognition, or knowing about knowing
Problem-solving skills and the ability to learn from, and adapt to, the experiences of everyday life
mental age (MA)
Binet's measure of an individual's level of mental development, compared with that of others
intelligence quotient (IQ)
A person's mental age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100.
A symmetrical distribution with most scores falling in the middle of the possible range of scores and few scores appearing toward the extremes of the range.
triarchic theory of intelligence
Sternberg's theory that intelligence consists of analytical intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence
Tests of intelligence that are designed to be free of cultural bias
A condition of limited mental ability in which an individual has a low IQ, usually below 70 on a traditional test of intelligence, and has difficulty adapting to everyday life.
Mental retardation that involves some physical damage and is caused by a genetic disorder or brain damage
Retardation characterized by no evidence of organic brain damage but the individual's IQ generally is between 50 and 70.
Having above average intelligence( IQ of 130 or higher) and/or superior talent for something
Refers to knowledge about language, such as knowing what a preposition is or the ability to discuss the sounds of a language
An approach to reading instruction based on the idea that instruction should parallel children's natural language learning. Reading materials should be whole and meaningful.
The idea that reading instruction should teach the basic rules for translating written symbols into sounds
The global evaluative dimension of the self. Self-esteem is also referred to as self-worth or self-image
Domain-specific evaluations of the self
The belief that one can master a situation and produce favorable outcomes.
The lowest level of Kohlberg's theory of moral development. The individual's moral reasoning is controlled primarily by external rewards and punishment
heteronomous morality (Stage 1)
Kohlberg's first stage in preconventional reasoning in which moral thinking is tied to punishment
individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange (Stage 2)
At this stage, individuals pursue their own interest but also let others do the same.
The second, or intermediate, level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development. At this level, individuals abide by certain standards, but they are the standards of others, such as parents or the laws of society
mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships and interpersonal conformity (Stage 3)
At this stage, individuals value trust, caring, and loyalty to others as a basis of moral judgments
Social systems morality (Stage 4)
Moral judgments are based on understanding the social order, law, justice, and duty.
Highest level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development. At this level, the individual recognizes alternative moral courses, explores the options and then decides on a personal moral code.
Social contract or utility and individual rights (Stage 5)
AT this stage, individuals reason that values, rights, and principles undergird or transcend the law
Universal ethical principles (Stage 6)
Individuals develop a moral standard based on universal human rights
A moral perspective that focuses on the rights of the individual; individuals independently make moral decisions.
The moral perspective of Carol Gilligan, which views people in terms of their connectedness with others and emphasizes interpersonal communication, relationships with others, and concern for others
Broad categories that reflect our impressions and beliefs about females and males
The presence of positive masculine and feminine characteristics in the same individual.
Children who are frequently nominated as a best friend and are rarely disliked by their peers
Children who receive an average number of both positive and negative nominations from their peers
Children who are infrequently nominated as a best friend but are not disliked by their peers
Children who are infrequently nominated as a best friend and are actively disliked by their peers
Children who are frequently nominated both as someone's best friend and as being disliked
A learner centered approach that emphasized the importance of individuals actively constructing their knowledge and understanding with guidance from the teacher
Direct instruction approach
A structured, teacher centered approach that is characterized by teacher direction and control, high teacher expetcations for student's progress, max time spent by students on learning tasks, and efforts by the teacher to keep negative affect to a minimum.
Piaget's second stage, lasting from about 2 to 7 years of age, during which children begin to represent the world with words, images and drawings and symbolic thought goes beyond simple connections of sensory information and physical action; stable concepts are formed, mental reasoning emerges, egocentrism is present, and magical beliefs are constructed
In Piaget's theory, internalized reversible sets of actions that allow children to do mentally what they formerly did physically.
symbolic function substage
Piaget's first substage of preoperational thought, in which the child gains the ability to mentally represent an object that is not present (between about 2 and 4 years of age)
The inability to distinguish between one's own perspective and someone else's (salient feature of the first substage of preoperational thought)
the belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities and are capable of action
intuitive thought substage
Piaget's second substage of preoperational thought, in which children begin to use primitive reasoning and want to know the answers to all sorts of questions (between about 4 and 7 years of age.
The focusing of attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of all others
In Piaget's theory, awareness that altering an object's or a substance's appearance does not change its basic properties
Social constructivist approach
An approach that emphasizes the social contexts of learning and that knowledge is mutually built and constructed. Vygotsky's theory reflects this approach.
zone of proximal development
Vygotsky's term for tasks too difficult for children to master along but that cant be mastered with assistance.
Involves action planning, allocating attention to goals, error detection and compensation, monitoring progress on tasks, and dealing with novel or difficult circumstances
Focused and extended engagement with an object, task, even, or other aspect of the environment
short term memory
The memory component in which individuals retain information for up to 30 seconds, assuming there is no rehearsal of the information
theory of mind
Refers to the awareness of one's own mental rocesses and the mental processes of others
The sound system of a language, including the sounds used and how they may be combined
Units of meaning involved in work formation
The ways words are combined to form acceptable phrases and sentences
The meaning of words and sentences
the appropriate use of language in different contexts
child centered kindergarten
education that involves the whole child by considering both the child's physical, cognitive, and socioemotional development and the child's needs, interests and learning styles
An educational philosophy in which children are given considerable freedom and spontaneity in choosing activities and are allowed to move from one activity to another as they desire
developmentally appropriate practice (DAP)
Education that focuses on the typical developmental patterns of children (age appropriateness) and the uniqueness of each child (individual appropriateness).
Project Head Start
A government funded program that is designed to provide children from low-income families the opportunity to acquire the skills and experiences important for school success
Recommended textbook explanations
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
A Concise Introduction To Logic (Mindtap Course List)
Lori Watson, Patrick J. Hurley
Myers' Psychology for the AP Course
David G Myers
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