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1-D Kinematics
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Terms in this set (21)
frame of reference
coordinate system used to define motion
reference point
zero location in a frame of reference
position
separation between an object and the reference point; vector; x or y in 2-D motion
distance
separation between two objects; scalar
scalar quantity
has only a magnitude or size
vector quantity
has both magnitude and direction; denoted with a symbol above variable
time
how long it takes for an event to occur; scalar
speed
how fast an object is moving; typically represented in meters per second (m/s); scalar
instantaneous speed
the speed of an object at any given time (m/s)
average speed
the ratio of position to time (m/s); usually referred to as speed
velocity
speed of an object including direction; the ratio of change in position to change in time, including direction (m/s); vector.
displacement
change in position, df - do; Δx (xf - xo) or Δy (yf - yo) in 2-D motion
average velocity
average of final and original velocities
constant velocity
motion in a straight line at a constant speed; vf = vo
position-time graph
graph that shows the relationship between position and time of an object; if the relationship is linear, the slope of the line of best fit defines the constant velocity of the object
acceleration
the rate at which velocity changes; includes changes in speed or direction
average acceleration
the ratio of change in velocity to change in time, including direction (m/s2); vector
constant acceleration
acceleration that does not change over time
free fall
motion under the influence of gravity only
acceleration due to gravity
a change in velocity due to the affects of free fall; -9.8 m/s2; can be rounded to 10 m/s2 when estimating; vector; defined as positive when moving up and negative when moving down
velocity-time graph
graph that shows the relationship between velocity and time of a moving object; if the relationship is linear, the slope of the line of best fit defines the constant acceleration of the object
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Verified questions
PHYSICS
A firefighter who weighs 689 N slides down a vertical pole with an acceleration of $$ 2.00 m/s^2 $$ , directed downward. What are the (a) magnitude and (b) direction (up or down) of the vertical force on the firefighter from the pole and the (c) magnitude and (d) direction of the vertical force on the pole from the firefighter?
PHYSICS
An ideal monatomic gas is contained in a vessel of constant volume 0.200 m$^3$. The initial temperature and pressure of the gas are 300 K and 5.00 atm, respectively. The goal of this problem is to find the temperature and pressure of the gas after 16.0 kJ of thermal energy is supplied to the gas. Use the first law of thermodynamics to find the change in internal energy of the gas.
PHYSICS
A grinding wheel is in the form of a uniform solid disk of radius 7.00 cm and mass 2.00 kg. It starts from rest and accelerates uniformly under the action of the constant torque of $0.600 \mathrm{N} \cdot \mathrm{m}$ that the motor exerts on the wheel. (a) How long does the wheel take to reach its final operating speed of 1200 rev/min? (b) Through how many revolutions does it turn while accelerating?
PHYSICS
It gets pretty hot in your apartment. In browsing the Internet, you ind a company selling small “room air conditioners.” You place the air conditioner on the loor, plug it in, and—the advertisement says—it will lower the room temperature up to . Should you $10^{\circ} \mathrm{F}$. Should you order one? Explain.
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