Terms in this set (124)
anything that has mass and occupies a space
characterized as having a definite shape and volume
The change in phase from water to liquid at 211 F
An example of a physical change
crushing a can
atomic mass number
number of protons + number of neutrons
An isotope of an element has the same number of ____________ but a differnt number of ________________
practically all the volume of the atom is accounted for by the ____________________
Vertical column on the periodic table are called
a "period" are the ________________ rows
The Octect rule states that the reason for chemical activity is so atoms attain the most stable configuration of ____________ electrons in the ______________
8, valence shell
what happens when Ca becomes Ca^+2
it loses two electrons
the number of valence electrons involved in chemical bonding
valence, ionic charge, oxidation number
Elements in the same __________ have similar characteristics
More reactive elements in a group are arranged....
higher, or above a given element. Example Chlorine is more reactive than Bromine
the sub-atomic particle different among elements
the total weight of individual atoms in a molecule
6.022 x 10^23
gram atomic weight =
Gram molecular weight
the mass of a mole of molecular
bond that transfers electrons
Bond that shares electrons
Bond that has a nuclei floating in a sea of electrons
A + X -> AX
AX -> A + X
gives off heat
increase the reaction rate, but is not absorbed
minimum energy needed to start the reaction
when the rate of the reversible reaction equals the rate of the solution
3 factors that shift Equilibrium
Major part of a solution
inorder for a solute to dissolve
The net solute-solvent (solution) must be greater than the reactants
If solute-solute attraction is greater than that of the solute-solvent attraction, what will happen?
the solute will not dissolve
where the solutes are located in a solution
in between the molecules of a solvent
the study of the composition, structure, properties, and reactions of matter
A measure of the amount of material over a given volume
Anything that has MASS and occupies space
At what temperature does water boil?
What happens to water at 210 F?
It evaporates, or the surface molecules gain enough KE to break the inter-molecular bonds holding them together
When water condensates it
cools, losing KE. Which help the molecules loosely reconnect.
Holds its shape unless changed by pressure or temperature
ii. Molecules are close together, but they are able to move around freely
A change of matter from one form to another without a change in chemical properties.
A change in matter that produces one or more new substances
When metal rusts it undergoes
When steam condenses into liquid, that is an example of what?
a combination of substances in which the individual components retain their own properties
The product of a solute and solvent, a homogeneous mixture, uniformed distribution
A sports drink solution consists of sugar, salts, water. Name these parts by their appropriate name.
Salts & Sugar - Solutes
Water - Solvent
Sports Drink - Solution
In order for an atom to become an ion it
gain or lose electrons
In order for an atom to become an isotope it must
gain or lose a neutron
Electrons that interact with other atoms exist in the
Which of the following has the most valence electrons C, N, O, Se
Atoms are considered mostly made up of space because the
Of the following, which is the heaviest; Proton, Electron, Atom, Ion, Isotope
The tendency to seek valence stability is an example of the
Which of the following will have the hardest time completing the octet rule; H, F, N, O
Hypothetically, if a made up element (X) had isotopes with the masses of X-100, X-110, X-120, X-150, X-90, X-80, what is the elements Atomic Weight? What is the gram atomic weight?
108.33 amu (Avg of the total)
The atomic weight of hydrogen is 1.07 and the atomic weight of Oxygen is 15.99. What is the molecular weight of H2O?
When you pour water onto an acid, the acid molecules initially compact, and as the pressure rises, the acid heats up, boiling and eventually erupting and splashing on the would be scientist. This is an example of an?
reaction or process that absorbs heat
reaction or process that releases energy in the form of heat
the combining of small molecules or substances into larger, more complex ones
a chemical reaction that breaks down compounds into simpler products.
Enzymes in your mouth speed up the chemical decomposition of food. Enzymes are an example of?
A person carrying all the groceries with one arm, and lifting their opposite are to balance is an example of what?
when a system at dynamic equilibrium is agitated, the system will adjust itself to minimize the effects of the agitation
Occurs between a solid plastic resin and a water solution
Ionic Water Purification
- a type of plastic with hundreds of pores that act as ion exchange site
Which of the following is not a type of Ion exchange malfunction?
Resin Breakthrough and Exhaustion
Matter in its most basic form
Smi-Metals or Metalloids
Atomic Mass Numner
= # of protons + # of Neutrons
H+ or H3O
Ca -> Ca+2
has Lost 2 electrons
Ca+2 -> Ca
has Gained 2 electrons
Reactivity Trends on the Periodic Table
Increase left to right
Increase from bottom to top
minimum energy required to start a reaction
at 99 degrees C, the two components did not interact, but at 100 degree C the two components exploded. This is an example of
3 Shift Factors
Makes the major part of a homogeneous solution
What is the Log Form of 4^2
ph = -Log(H+)
pOH = -Log (OH-)
3 Reasons for Ion Purification
minimize radiation levels
Purpose for Ion exchange process
remove undesirables ion and replace with acceptable ions
Cation does what to pH?
or Increase acidity
Anion doe what to pH?
or Increase Alkalinity
Negative Ion OH-
Positive Ion H+
DNA is an example of what
long chain molecule made up of repeating patterns or identical sub-units
Resin Bed Construction
Retention Elements at Top AND Bottom
Mixed Resin Bed
Release both H+ and OH-
point at which undesired ion appear in the effluent (output) stream
Channeling malfunction Results in _______ and is typically caused by __________
Low Differential Pressure, High Input Flow
Deterioration of a material resulting from the chemical interaction with its environment
slow, uniformed deteriaition
Temp vs Corrosion
As Temp increase, Corrosion increase
when oxide layers are formed on metal, thus preventing further corrosion
two dissimilar metals in an electrolyte solution
corrosion at a fixed, small area the formulates holes
Tensile stress Vectors
Perpendicular to the stress plane, but away in opposite directions
Compression Stress Vectors
Perpendicular to the stress plane, and toward each other
A hot glass fresh from the dish washer is filled with ice water. What is likely to happen and why?
The glass will have a brittle fracture, because of thermal shock (rapid cooling)
Thermal Stress vs Thermal Shock
Thermal Stress = Difference in Temp
Thermal Shock = Rapid heating or cooling
You're buddy's team loses the game, in disgust he slams his beer glass on the counter. The glass does not break. This is an example of
but not personal toughness
Kinetic Theory of Gasses
- High speed, strait line, random motion.
- gasses at the same temperature, have the same kinetic energy (energy of motion)
Conservation of Energy
Initial Energy = Final Energy
Energy in = Energy Out
KE-1 = KE-2
n in the ideal gas law
mole of a gas
R in the ideal gas law
0.0821 atm.L/mol. k
If your mom made you "wash your mouth out" with soap, and your tongue felt slippery afterwords, this is because?
Bases destroy cells on contact
PPE for Handling Corrosive Material
Face Shield / Googles
Chem resistant gloves
How long should you wash your eyes with water if they are exposed to acid or base?
How long should you wash your skin with water if they are exposed to acid or base?
Toxicity vs Hazard
Toxicity is the Capacity or how much harm a substance will cause
Hazard is the Probability or how likely something is to cause harm
Acute vs Chronic
Acute = Rapid, Severe
Chronic = Slow, overtime
Pressure effects on a liquid-liquid solution
Pressure has no effect on a liquid liquid solution
Two or more substance psychically combined in variable proportions and yet you cannot tell a difference between the parts, is an example of what?
Convert 30 C to Kelvin
Convert 20 C to Fahrenheit
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