Role of nutrition in maintaining a healthy immune system?
Good nutrition helps maintain a healthy immune system to defend against infection. Both deficient and excessive nutrients can harm the immune system. (Immune system one of the first things harmed if deficient or toxic in a nutrient.)
What happens during atherosclerosis?
Hardening of the arteries. Soft, fatty streaks start, then gradually enlarge and harden causing plaque. Leads to hypertension (high BP) and blood clotting, which leads to heart attacks and strokes.
Risk factors for atherosclerosis?
NOT CHANGEABLE: -increased age -male -genetics CHANGEABLE: -High LDL cholesterol -Low HDL cholesterol -Hypertension -Diabetes -Obesity (esp. central) -Phys inactivity -cigarette smoking -diet high in saturated fat and low in whole foods
Heart Disease (CVD): risk differences for men vs. women
AGE BECOMES RISK AT- Males:45+ Females:55+ (but after menopause 2-3X higher risk than before)
High blood pressure. (Often caused because of atherosclerosis.)
-Exposure to carcinogen. -Entry of carcinogen to cell. -Carcinogenesis (changes makeup of cell). -Acceleration by promoters (other carcinogens) and tumor starts to form. -Often, metastasis (spread via blood and lymph). -Disruption of normal body functions.
Diet and lifestyle changes that reduce risks of cardiovascular disease:
-Balance calories with physical activity -choose lean meats, veg, and milk products -high fiber -high potassium, low sodium -fewer added sugars -consume omega-3 fatty acids 2x week -Plant sterols=good -Soy products instead of meat where possible -limit alcohol
Diet and lifestyle changes that reduce risks of hypertension:
-DASH diet (lots of fruits, veg, whole foods, low-fat dairy, not a lot of sodium and sat. fat) -lose weight -increase physical activity -don't drink lots of alcohol
Diet and lifestyle changes that reduce risks of cancer:
-lower calorie intake -normal BMI -physically active -Low alcohol intake -Lower fat diet -not a lot of red meat -increase fiber intake -Folate and antioxident vits. -Calcium and Vit. D -Iron -Whole foods (and phytochemicals)
Complementary and Alternative medicine
Diverse health-care systems not considered to be part of conventional medicine. Ex. acupuncture, biofeedback, chiropractic, faith healing, and others.
Possible risks and benefits of complementary and alternative medicine:
BENEFITS: -Humane, based on the individual -Placebo effect -Acupuncture has proven somewhat effective RISKS: -Don't communicate with professionals -Bad interaction with dr. recommendations -Harmful additives, not regulated