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Govt. Ch 1&2 Vocab
Terms in this set (119)
What Americans Know About Politics and Why it Matters
By Michael Delli Carpini and Scott Keeter
-Importance of staying informed in public affairs
-Argue political knowledge fosters civic firtues, helps citizens identify what policies benefit them and incorporate into voting behavior, and promotes active participation in politics.
The institutions that make public policy decisions for a society
How should we govern?
Americans take pride in calling their government democratic
What should government do?
Some people want govt. to take on more responsibilities; other believe it has already taken on too much.
Maintain a national defense
Govt. protects natl. sovereignty, usually w armed forces. US spends $600 billion/yr on natl. defense.
Provide public goods and services
Spend billions of dollars on schools, libraries, hospitals, highways, etc.
2 types of goods and services: Collective goods (clean air) and others that can be denied to some (college or med care)
Goods and services that cannot be denied to anyone (Ex: clear air and clean water)
When ppl protest in large numbers, govt. must resort to extreme measures to restore order. (Ex: Natl. Guard called to Baltimore to stop looting after death of Freddie Gray)
Socialize the young
Most modern govt. pay for education, and school curricula usually includes coarse on theory and practice of country's govt. (Pledge of Allegiance)
One out of every 3 $ earned by citizens goes to natl., state, and local taxes (pays for public goods and services the govt. provides)
The process of determine the leaders we select and the polices they pursue.
Who is the "who" of politics?
The media. Also, the voters, candidates, groups, and parties
What is the "what" of politics?
Substance of politics and government (benefits, like med care for elderly, and burdens like taxes)
What is the "how" of politics?
The way in which people participate in politics (get what they want thru lobbying, voting, supporting, compromising)
All activities by which citizens attempt to influence the selection of political leaders and the polices they pursue. (Ways ppl get involved)
Many judge the health of the government by how widespread ______ ______ is.
What groups have high voter turnout rate?
What groups have low voter turnout rate?
Groups that have a narrow interest on which their members tend to take an uncompromising stance.
Groups of activists dedicated to outlawing abortion or preserving abortion rights.
Ex of single-group issues
Process by which policy comes into being and evolves. Ppl's probs, concerns, and interests create political issues for govt. policy makers.
What does the policymaking system begin with?
What do people do to express their opinions in a democracy?
They may vote for candidates who represent their opinions, join political parties, post messages online, form interest groups.
Organized groups of people with a common interest
The political channels thru which people's concerns become political issues on the policy agenda.
_______ provide citizens with the chance to make their opinions heard by choosing their public officials.
The issues that attract the serious attention of public officials and other people involved in politics at a point in time.
A government's ____ _____ changes regularly. When jobs are scare and business productivity falling, economic problems occupy high position on government's agenda.
An issue that arises when people disagree about a problem and how to fix it.
Government will not act on any ____ until it is high on the policy agenda
Environmental policy is an example of a policy made by a ________ ________ _________
Single policy making institution
Branches of govt. charged with taking action on political issues.
US Const. estab 3: Cong, Pres, and Courtship
__________ stand at the court of system, working with three policymaking institutions established by the Constitution (Congress, presidency, and the courts)
Scan the issues on the policy agenda, select those they consider important, and make policies the address them.
-Some Presidents use influence with Congress to urge clean air and water policies.
-When Congress responds by passing legislation to clean up the environment, bureaucracies have to implement new policies
-Bureaucracies create extensive volumes of rules and regulations that define how policies are to be implemented.
-Every law passed and every rule made can be challenged in the courts.
A choice that govt. makes in response to a political issue.
Course of action taken with regard to some problem.
Laws passed by Congress
Involve the legislative enactment of taxes and expenditures
Occurs when a federal agency issued guidelines regarding the implementation of laws
The effects a policy has on people and problems.
Impacts are analyzed to see how elk policy has met goal and at what cost.
A system of selecting policy makers and organizing govt. so that policy represents and responds to the publication preferences.
"The people should have as little to do as may be about the government."
Equality in voting
"One person, one vote," ; no ones vote should count more than anyone else's.
Citizens must have assayed and equal opportunities to express their preferences throughout decision making process
Dem. society must be a marketplace of ideas. Free press and speech are essential to civic understanding. One group can't monopolize.
Citizen control of agenda
If particular groups (wealthy) had influence FDR exceeding what would be expected , then agenda will be distorted and govt. won't address the issues just the public as whole feels are most important.
The government must include and extend all right to those subject to its laws.
Citizenship must be open to all if want to be called democratic. The
Fundamental principle of traditional democratic theory.
Choosing among alt. requires maj desire to be respected
Principle of traditional democratic theory that guarantees rights to those who don't belong to majorities.
A basic principle of traditional democratic theory that describes the relationships between the few leaders and may followers
A theory of Amer dem. emphasizing that the policymaking process is very open to the participation of al groups with shared interests, w no single group dominating.
Public interest prevails.
Groups that lose in one arena can take their case to another. (Civil Rights won action from the Courts)
Ex of Pluralism
Optimistic that public interest will prevail in the making of public policy thru complex process of bargaining and compromise
A theory of Amer. dem contending that an upper-class elite holds the power and makes policy, regardless of formal governmental organization.
Believe that 1% controls most policy decisions because they can afford to finance election campaigns and control key institutions (large corporations)
A theory of Amer dem contending that groups are so strong that government, which gives in to the many different groups, is thereby weakened.
What theory holds that the government gives in to every conceivable interest and single-issue group?
Increased complexity of issues
We live in society with complex issues and experts whose tech knowledge of those issues vastly exceeds the knowledge of general public
James Curry argues "Legislating in the Dark" the prob of info is acute for policy makers too
Limited participation in government
Americans don't take full advantage of their opportunities to shape government or select its leaders.
Escalating campaign loss
Winning a House seat requires campaign war chest of already $1 mill
Polit Action Committees rep specific economic issues and care only on how Cong votes on them.
Diverse political interests
When interests conflict, no collation may be strong enough to form majority and establish policy.
A condition that occurs when interests conflict and no collation is strong enough to form a majority and establish policy, so nothing gets done.
An overall set of values widely shared within a society.
Freedom of speech and religion are fundamental to Amer. way of life.
TJ list "liberty" as an inalienable right
Belief that people can and should get ahead on their own.
Louis Hartz "The Liberal Tradition in America" is analysis of dominant polit beliefs during US formative years.
Louis Hartz's "The Liberal Tradition"
The major force behind limited government in US is that it was settled by people who fled from the feudal and clerical oppressions of the Old World.
Promotes free markets and limited govt.
John Kingdon "America the Unusual"
US devotes a smaller percentage of resources to its govt.
US does much less than governments of other democracies.
Lincoln "Govt of ppl, by ppl, for ppl"
Ppl is key to populism; supporting rights of average citizens in struggle against privileges elites.
Americans have never been equal in terms of condition
Concern equality of opp is being eroded since those w highest income levels are obtaining an increasing share of nations wealth.
Gross domestic product (GDP)
The sum of total of the value of all the goods and services produced in a year in a nation.
Nations basic law that created political institutions, assigns or divides powers in government, and provides certain guarantees to citizens.
Declaration of Independence
Document approved by representatives of US colonies in 1776 that stated their grievances against Brit monarch and declared their indep
Rights inherent in human beings, not dependent on govt (life, liberty, and happiness); John Locke
The Second Treatise of Civil Government
John Locke's influential writing
Consent of the governed (Locke)
The idea that govt. derives its authority from the people
The idea that certain restrictions should be placed on government o protect the natural rights of citizens.
2 limits on Govt that were imp. to Locke
1.) Govt. must provide standing laws so ppl know in advance whether their acts will be acceptable.
2.) The supreme power cannot take from any man any part of his prosperity without his consent.
American Revolution was essentially a conservative movement they did not drastically change the colonists way of life.
Aborted Annapolis Meeting
9/1786 meeting was supposed to be here but then realized there needed to be a larger meeting and broader proposal. So Continental Congress grant request and meeting happened (Constit. Convention) in Philly
Articles of Confederation
1st constitution drafted of the US, adopted in 1777, ratified in 1781. Articles established continental Cong as natl. legislature but left most authority with the state legislatures
Series of attacks on courthouses by small band of farmers led by Rev. War captain Daniel Shays to block foreclosure proceedings
Document written in 1787 and ratified in 1788 that sets forth the institutional structure of the US govt., tasks institutions perform, and relationships among them. Replaced AOC.
Groups such as interest groups that according to J.Madz arise from unequal distribution of wealth and have potential to cause instability in govt.
Hobbes says mans natural state was war and strong absolute ruler was necessary to restrain mans bestial tendencies
The distribution of wealth is the source of political conflict. Other sources of conflict= religion, views of governing, and attachment to various leaders.
Purpose of government
Preservation of property, proving security from invasion, ensuring domestic peace, promoting public's health and welfare.
Nature of government
Power should be set against power so no one faction would overwhelm the others.
New Jersey Plan
Proposal at Constitutional Convention that called for equal representation of each state in Congress regardless of size of states population.
The proposal at the Constitutional Convention that called for representation of each state in Congress to be proportional to its population
The compromise reached at the Constitutional Convention that established two houses of Cong; HOR= based on states pop and Senate= each state has 2 reps
2nd equality issue. Obvious contradictions, agree to limit number and outlaw in 1808 but didn't forbid slavery
Representation in HOR and taxation were to be based on "number of free persons" in state plus 3/5 of he number of "all other persons"
Equality in voting
Handful of delegates (Franklin) suggest all free adult males should be able to vote in national elections (majority disenfranchised)
Agreed they needed to address the following problems with the economy
-States imposed tariffs on products from other states
-Paper $ was virtually worthless in some states, but many state govt. were controlled by debtors forced it on creditors anyways
-Cong. was having trouble raising $ bc the economy was in recession
Who is to be the chief economic policymaker?
Writ of Habeus Corpus
A court requiring authorities to explain to a judge what lawful reason they have for holding a prisoner in custody
Ex post facto laws
Punish people for acts that were not illegal when they were done or retroactively increase the penalties for illegal acts.
Protections Constitution offers
-prohibits suspension of writ of habeus corpus
-prohibits Cong or states from passing bills of attainder
-prohibits Cong or states from passing ex post facto laws
-prohibits imposition of religious qualification for holding office in the national government
-defines and outlines rules and evidence of treason
-right to trial by jury
Governments final structure; factions
Limiting Majority Control
J.Madz thought to thwart tyranny by man, it's essential to keep most of govt. beyond their power.
2 yr in HOR
Separation of Powers
A feature in the Constitution of that requires the three branches of govt. (exec, legisl, judicial) to be relatively independent of each other so that one can't control the others. Power is shared among these three instit.
Checks and Balances
Features of the Constitution that require each branch of the fed. govt. to obtain the consent of the others for its actions; limit power of each branch.
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
Supreme Court asserted power to check the other branches of government thru judicial review; Asserted SC power to determine the meaning of US Constitution.
Power to hold actions of the other two branches of government unconstitutional.
Establishing a Federal System
System of govt that divides the power to govern Bren the natl. and state govt.
A form of government in which the people select representatives to govern them and make laws.
"It is scarcely to be doubted they in some of the adopting states, a majority of the people were in opposition"
Supporters of the US Constitution at the time states were contemplating its adoption
Opponents of the US Constitution at the time when the states were contemplating its adoption.
Set of 85 essays that advocate ratification of the Constitution and provide insightful commentary on the nature of the new system of govt.
Bill of Rights
The first 10 amendments to the US Constitution drafted in response to some of the Anti-Fed concerns. Define basic liberties like freedom of religion, speech, and press, and guarantee defendants rights.
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
A constitutional amendment passed by Cong in 1972 stating that "equality of rights under the law shall. It be denied or abridged by US or any state in account of sex"
Failed to acquire the necessary support from 3/4 of state legislatures
Changing Political Practice
Political Parties are new
Role of electoral college in selecting president
The media questions govt. policies, support candidates, help shape citizens opinions.
Govt. bureaucracy new ways to serve public (Social Sec checks)
Increased Demands for New Policies
Evolution of US in internatl. affairs; concentrated extra power in hands of chief exec (Constit. designated to take lead in foreign policies) like war on terror bc might not be a country by amorphous group of ppl.
Set of arrangements that requires leader to think, act and explain before they make laws
Gov't that enforces limits on those who govern
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