Terms in this set (42)

  • immigrants
    people who enter and become established in a country other than that of their original nationality.
  • John Pierpont Morgan
    the most powerful and influential financer. He developed a reputation for shrewd business and merged Carnegie Steel Company and several others to make the first billion-dollar corporation
  • steerage
    cramped quarters on a ship's lower decks for passengers paying the lowest fares
  • Ellis Island
    the processing center for many of the immigrants arriving from Europe after 1892
  • Jacob Riis
    a Danish man who was a journalist observed that in 1890 if a map of new York City was sectioned off to show all of the different nationalities in NYC there wouls be many different sections.
  • ethnic
    groups of people classed according to common racial, national, tribal, religious, linguistic, or cultural origin or background.
  • Angel Island
    a barracks in Californai for Asian immigrants.
  • nativism
    hostility toward immigrants
  • Chinese Exclusion Act
    This law barred Chinese immigration for 10 years and prevented the Chinese already in the country form becoming citizens.
  • incentive
    something that motivates a person into action
  • skyscrapers
    tall, steel-frame buildings
  • Louis Sullivan
    The man who contributed the most to the design of skyscrapers.
  • tenements
    multifamily apartments, usually dark, crowded, and barely meeting minimum living standards.
  • political machine
    an organization linked to a political party that often controlled local government
  • party boss
    the person in control of a political machine
  • graft
    the acquisition of money in dishonest ways, as in bribing a politician
  • George Plunkitt
    He was one of New York City's most powerful party bosses-
  • William "Boss" Tweed
    he was the most infamous person in the New York City Democratic political machine
  • Gilded Age
    term coined by Mark Twain and Charles Warner to represent the disparities in society in the late 1800s
  • individualism
    the thought that no matter what a person's background is, the person can still become successfull
  • Social Darwinism
    an idea of this era that was derived from Darwin's theories reinforced individualism
  • evolution
    the scientific theory that humans and other forms of life have evolved over time.
  • Gospel of Wealth
    wealthy American should engage in philanthropy
  • philanthropy
    providing money to support humanitarian or social goals
  • Mark Twain
    brilliant American writer who captured the essence of America
  • Social Gospel
    a movement that worked to better conditions in cities according to biblical ideals of charity and justice.
  • settlement house
    institution located in a poor neighborhood that provided numerous community services such as medical care, child care, libraries, and classes in English.
  • Jane Addams
    She opened the famous Hull House in Chicago
  • Americanization
    the process of immigrant children being taught English in public schools and they learned about American history and culture.
  • populism
    political movement founded in the 1890s representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other large industries.
  • greenbacks
    a piece of US paper money first issued by the North during the Civil War
  • inflation
    the loss of value of money
  • bonds
    a note issued by the government that promises to pay off a loan with interest
  • deflation
    a decline in the volume of available money or credit that results in lower prices, and, therefore, increases the buying power of money.
  • currency
    paper money used as a medium of exchange
  • copperatives
    a store where farmers buy products form each other; an enterprise owned and operated by those who use its services
  • strategic
    necessary to or important in the initiation, conduct, or completion of a military plan
  • Farmer's Alliance
    An organization that had strong support in the south- this alliance wanted to organize large cooperatives in order to force farm prices up and make loans to farmers at low interest rates.
  • People's Party
    this party was also known as the Populists- they nominated candidates to run for Congress and the state legislature.
  • graduated income tax
    tax based on the net income of an individual or business and which taxes different income levels at different rates
  • William Jennings Bryan
    he was a strong supporter of silver- he was nominated for Democrats- the populists didn't want to be split in half so they also supported him, but they worried about the risk of them being seen as a different identity.
  • William McKinley
    the governor of Ohio who was the candidate for the Republicans- they made him the candidate because they thought he could sway the Northeast and Midwest.