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Court Cases...

Baker v Carr

case that est. one man one vote. this decision created guidelines for drawing up congresional districts and guaranteed a more equitable system of representation to the citizens of each state

Brown v Board of Education

court found that segregation was a violation of the Equal Protection clause; "separate but equal" has no place; reverse decision of Plessy v Feurgeson

Engel v Vitale

Prayer in public schools is unconstitutional.

Gibbons v Ogden

This case involved New York trying to grant a monopoly on waterborne trade between New York and New Jersey. Judge Marshal, of the Supreme Court, sternly reminded the state of New York that the Constitution gives Congress alone the control of interstate commerce. Marshal's decision, in 1824, was a major blow on states' rights.

Gideon v Wainwright

Upheld the 6th amendment guarantee of counsel of all poor persons facing a felony charge, a further incorporation of Bill of Rights guarantees into State constitutions.

Gitlow v New York

A supreme court case between Gitlow, a socialist, who pushed and called for the establishment of socialism in America. He was arrested for distributing left wing socialist pamphlets. It was ruled that no state can deny a citizen of their first amendment rights.

Lemon v Kurtzman

Created "lemon" test for determining where money can be spent. Limits excessive government involvement in religion.

Mapp v Ohio

Applied the "Exclusionary Rule" to the states.

Marbury v Madison

Created the power of judicial review.

McCulloch v Maryland

Ruled that the states may not tax the federal government. Solidified the legal standing of the national bank.

Miranda v Arizona

People arrested must be informed of their right to remain silent and right to an attorney prior to questioning.

Powell v Alabama

Famous case where nine blacks were accused of the alleged rape of 2 women on a freight train... they had no counsel. court held that the due process clause of the 14th amendment meant that there must be effective counsel in capital cases.

Reynolds v U.S.

Man claimed that the court should not find him guilty of polygamy since it was his religious duty. The court ruled that religious practices do not supersede law.

Roe v Wade

Decriminalized Abortion

Romer v Evans

Prevents any state from discriminating against homosexuals.

Schenk v U.S.

Speech that creates a "clear and present danger"---especially during war times—can be limited. Free speech is not "absolute".

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