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PSY 250-Research Quiz 1
Terms in this set (94)
What are the four goals/purposes of science?
Explain and give and example of Description:
How do people behave?
•How do people differ from one another?
•How does the same person's behavior differ from one situation to another?
Describe and give an example of Explanation:
•Why does it happen?
•Why do different people respond differently to the same situation?
•Why does the same person respond differently to different situations?
Explain and give an example of Prediction:
•When will a person behave that way?
•Which person will act this way?
Explain and give an example of Control:
•Can we get someone to engage in the behavior?•Can we stop someone from engaging in the behavior?
In any given study, do we need to meet all four goals of scientific theory or is one enough?
No single study can meet all four goals.
-Human behavior is a complicated phenomena with multiple causes and contributing factors
What is a theory, in the context of science?
Is an explanation about how phenomena are related.
-Relate unobservable processes to each other and to observable events
What are some popular misconceptions about what a theory is?
A theory is a fact or an hypothesis. IT IS NOT.
How is the scientific view of a theory different from these misconceptions?
A theory is how you think the world works, in the big picture. (more general)
A hypothesis is how you'll know if that theory is correct or not. (More concrete)
What are the characteristics of scientific theories?
-Rational, General, Tentative
What is empiricism and give me an example:
-Based on objective, systematic observations
Objective=we're not influencing or selecting what we observe
Systematic=we're trying to be consistent and to minimize the effects of chance and what we observe
What is determinism and give me an example:
Causes have effects and we can identify them
-Phenomena influence other phenomena in reasonably consistent and predictable ways
What is falsifiability and give me an example:
It must be possible to refute the theory by observation(testability)
If a theory is not falsifiable we can never really know whether it's true or not
-Freud's theories are often criticized as being untestable
What is parsimony and give me an example:
When there are multiple possible explanations, but prefer the simplest one
What is rational and give me an example:
Following the rules of logic(deductive); consistent with what we have already established
What is general and give me an example:
Involve some level of abstraction-go beyond a very specific set of variable in a specific context
-People who are sad engage in comfort eating
What is tentative and give me an example:
We leave open the possibility that later evidence could disconfirm or change our theory
-Theories are never "proven"
Does a theory need to meet them all of the four canons, or is one enough?
We need to meet all four canons in order to have a good theory.
What are the four ways of knowing about the world, as discussed in lecture and your text?
What is experience and give an example?
What you see, experience, perceive
"In my experience..."
What is intuition and give an example:
Common sense, or implicit knowing
"I just know..."
What is authority and give an example:
Relying on an expert or highly credible source
"A harvard psychologist has concluded that..."
What is deduction and give an example:
Using logical reasoning, putting things together to come to conclusions beyond what you can directly observe
Link between observation and inductive reasoning:
When/how is experience useful?
When/how is intuition useful?
When/how is authority useful?
When/how is deduction useful?
How does each experience, intuition, authority, and deduction contribute to science?
Experience: systematic observation is a key component of the scientific method
-Also helps identify interesting problems or questions
Intuition: can help us identify problems that are important, interesting
Authority: learn from those who have gone before
Deduction: identify new hypothesis, make connections, put ideas together
What are the limitations of experience, intuition, authority, and deduction?
Experience: not everything is observable, our experience may be limited or distorted- no comparison
Intuition: unreliable, subject to lots of biases
Authority: Where's the authority coming from? Is it earned?, subject to biases
Deduction: Depends on the equality of our premises(incorrect assumption, incorrect conclusion)
What is a confound?
Alternative explanations for a phenomenon
Why are confounds important in science?
We need many observations of a phenomenon, across different conditions, to rule out these alternative explanations
What is a hypothesis?
Specific prediction based on that explanation(simpler)
How is a hypothesis different from a theory?
A hypothesis is how you'll know if the theory is correct or not.
How is a hypothesis different from a research question?
Applies a comparison, not a causation
Example of a confound variable:
Getting an A on a test but saying it was from sleeping...what other reasons could be why you did well on test?
What is a research question?
Can be descriptive or causal
Have to be scientific questions
What does it mean to disconfirm a theory?
It means to find ways of making your study not consistent. We don't want a conformation bias
What is a confirmation bias?
Is the tendency to look for information that is consistent with our expectation, and ignore information that is not consistent with our expectations
Who experiences confirmation bias?
People, researchers too e.g. first impressions
What's the difference between a causal hypothesis and a descriptive hypothesis? Give an example of each.
How do these connect to the purposes of science?
What is the difference between basic and applied research?
What kinds of problems are solved by each? How are they related? Give and recognize examples of each type.
•Conducted to evaluate theories or answer empirical questions
•Knowledge for knowledge's sake
•Little emphasison application to real-world problems.
•Doesn't mean that application isn't possible! It's just not the main goal.
•Motivated by a desire to ameliorate a real-world problem
•May or may not have a theoretical basis.
•Goal is to apply results to a real-world problem -usually a specific one.
We need them both.
What do we mean when we say that a question is a scientific question?
What do we mean by "the literature"?
-The research literatureis the collection of empirical studies and scientific theories that are related to your research question.
Example: peer reviewed journal articles
What is peer review? What is its purpose?
•Researchers submit a manuscript to a journal.
•The journal editor finds 2-4 experts in the field to serve as peer reviewers.
•Reviewers read the manuscript and evaluate whether it is good science.
What is a primary source?
people reporting research they did themselves, not reporting the research of others secondhand.
Where would you find peer-reviewed, primary research?
-databases such as PSYCHOinfo, google scholar
Broadly speaking, what do you expect to find in each major section of an APA article?
Introduction, Method, Results, Discussion
•Explains the rationale for the study -this is what we know, this is what we don't know, this is why we need to know.
•Makes an argument for the plausibility of the hypotheses.
What is the formal definition of a variable?
A characteristic or property that can take on different values
How is a variable different from a constant?
A variable is a characteristic that is the same for everyone
What is a conceptual variable?
or a construct is an abstract theoretical variable
-implies a collection of possible related behaviors, thoughts, emotions, etc.
What is an operational variable?
specific behaviors we can observe
-what we actually study
What is the connection between conceptual and operational ideas and theories/hypotheses?
What is a manipulated variable?
the researcher does something that sets or changes the value of the variable for each participant
-the researcher controls who has what value of a manipulated variable
What is a measured variable?
All the researchers do it observe and record the value of the variable for each participant (i.e. gender)
What's a correlation? Define it in simple conceptual terms and be able to interpret the value of correlations (e.g., r = .10, r = -.60, etc.) in terms of both direction and magnitude.
-Concerned with claims of association, not causation
-Correlations range from -1 to +1
-Pay attention to: Direction(positive or negative)
The magnitude(how far the number is from 0 in either direction) -60 is a higher correlation that .10
How are variance (or variability) and correlation related?
Does not manipulate, control for, intervene in any of those variables
Why do we use correlations in research that makes claims about associations?
Interested in naturally occurring patterns and relationships
What is the defining characteristic of correlational (or associative) research?
When (if ever) might we use correlational research in science and why?
What are the "two disciplines of scientific psychology" and how are they related?
Are correlation (association) and causation related in any way? If so, how? If not, why not?
Correlation is necessary for causation
What are the three requirements for establishing causality? Be able to identify whether each is or is not met in a given research design
1) Temporal Sequencing
3) Ruling out plausible alternative explanations
"A" happens before "B" in time
"A" and "B" tend to go together
Ruling out plausible alternative explanations:
You can be reasonably confident that some third variable "C" doesn't explain the relationship between "A" and "B"
-Called third variable problem
What are the "two disciplines of scientific psychology" and how are they related?
Experimental and Correlational Research
-Both are necessary to the field
Concerned with claims of causation
What is the third variable problem?
-We can only rule out what we measure
What is a spurious correlation?
Exist just by chance
What is internal validity? Why is this important?
"Good test of causal hypothesis"
-How well can we rule out alternative explanations
-Control factors that might make it difficult to draw clear conclusions
What is external validity?
-Relevance to the real world
-Do the findings generalize(mean anything) outside of the specific context of study
What is the difference between internal and external validity?
Internal is causal, control factors
external is real world
Which type of validity is more often associated with correlational research?
Which type of validity is more often associated with experimental research?
What is generalizability?
the extent to which a sample accurately reflects the population from which it is drawn
What is a population?
the entire group of people you are interested in
E.g. all American adults
What is a sample?
is the people who actually participate in your study; subset
What, specifically, do we mean when we say a sample is representative?
We want to argue that our sample was representative of our population of interest-that it has overall the same relevant characteristics.
What is a sampling error?
error in a statistical analysis arising from the unrepresentativeness of the sample taken.
What is the big difference between probability and nonprobability (or convenience) samples?
Probability: Everyonein the population has an equal probability of being chosen for the study.
Convenance: We have no idea what the probability of being chosen for the study is.
1) Simple random samples:
Everyone in the population has an equal chance of being selected for the study
-Need a way to reach out to the population
-A truly random and unbiased way to choose them
-The larger the sample the more representative it is
2) Cluster of Multistage Sampling
When you know the whole population, but you can't practically access them all
-Figure out how your data will be clustered
-Randomly choose a set of clusters
What is a cluster sample?
Study all the people in the clusters you choose
What is a multistage sample?
randomly choose participants from within each cluster
3) Stratified Random Sampling:
When you know particular characteristics are important and you want to make sure the sample matches the population on those characteristics
E.G. gender, ethnicity
1. Haphazard/ Convenience/ Volunteer Sampling:
You don't start with the whole population- you start with who you have available
-Self select into studies
-Might be paid
-Might be far from representative
2. Quota Sampling:
•Identify one or more characteristics of interest. •Figure out the proportion of your population that has those characteristics.
-Recruit participants (volunteers!) until the proportions in your sample match the proportions in the population.
•Actively recruit participants (still volunteers!) who have the characteristics you are most interested in.
•Seek them out on purpose because they have that characteristic.
•Can't generalize beyond this group, but you're not trying to.
•Can't claim the sample is representative of the narrower group, either.
•When would you use this design?
Advantages and disadvantages of using undergraduates as research participants:
D•Narrow age range (mostly 18-24).
D•~ 60% female.
D•Higher SES than the general population.
D•Less ethnically diverse.
A•If in psychology... interested in the subject, self-reflective, prosocial
Student samples are good for:
Student samples are not so good for:
•Long-term relationships (years)
•Attitudes that change with age
Does a simple random sample guarantee you will get a representative sample? Why or why not?
If it's not a representative sample it is a:
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