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Epidemiology Lecture 2
Terms in this set (25)
is a measure of the center of the data
Basic average. Sum of scores divided by number of scores. Affected by extreme values. Used with interval and ratio scale.
Number or score that occurs most often. Used with all the scales. Usually used in a descriptive context.
Divides the numbers of scores in half. Used with all scales and is often cited due to resilience against extreme numbers (outliers).
the number of cases of disease, infected persons, or condition present at a particular time in relation to the size of the population from which it is drawn.
The total number of people in a population that have a condition at a specific time:
Number of cases present in the population in a specific time/Number of people in the population during that specified time X100
May be due to a high incidence, prolonged duration, or both.
If incidence is low but duration is high, prevalence may tend to be relatively high. (P = I x D)
May be due to a low incidence (or decrease in incidence), a short durations (rapid recovery or death), or both.
If incidence is high but duration is short, prevalence will usually end up being relatively low.
Proportional Mortality Rate (PMR)
Number of deaths from a specific cause in a specific time period per 100 deaths from all causes for the same time period.
Indicates relative importance of a specific cause of a disease NOT a measure of risk for that disease.
PMR: Mortality due to a specific cause during a time period/Mortality due to all causes during the same time period
Cause-Specific Mortality Rate
It is a type of crude mortality rate.
Crude mortality rates can be reported in the form of age-specific, gender-specific and cause-specific.
It is a rate.
Cause-Specific Mortality Rate: Number of deaths in due to a specific disease/ Reference Population (Usually at Mid-Year)
The number of new cases of a disease that occur during a specified period of time in a population at risk for developing the disease.
IR: New cases occurring during a given period of time/Population at risk at the beginning of the time period X100
The rate at which new events occur within a population. More specifically, it is the number of events (new diseases) occurring in a specific population within a specified time period.
Determines association between characteristics of populations and specific diseases (over time), a critical component of epidemiology!!!
Incidence rate of disease among exposed in a group (time)/Incidence rate of disease among non-exposed in a group (time)
Relationship between incidence and prevalence
1) Incidence includes only new cases (therefore, it is a true measure of RISK).
2) Both are proportions.
3) The prevalence of a disease depends on the incidence rate and duration of the disease.
Prevalence = Incidence x Average Duration of the Disease
P = Incidence (I) x Duration (D)
A diseased condition or state of health.
The rate at which an illness occurs in a particular area or population. (Rate: Proportion with a distinct relationship between numerator and denominator in a specified period of time; usually a year).
Crude Death Rate
Number of deaths in a given year/Reference Population (Usually at Mid-Year)
Crude Mortality Rate
Basic disease burden estimate for a population. Crude because "not adjusted for any other type of population distribution" Can be misleading if compared to other populations.
"Ongoing systematic collection, analysis, and
interpretation of health data essential to the
planning, implementation, and evaluation of
public health practice closely integrated with
the timely dissemination of these data to those
who need to know."
Regular, systematic process of reporting conditions; generally less expensive but may miss smaller/rarer events (no additional action required).
Ex: In Texas, clinicians are required to regularly report cases of over 100 health conditions to local or regional health departments within a given time period
Actually going out and getting data (record review, survey, interviews, seeking out cases, etc.); generally more accurate.
Ex: Identifying and monitoring the individuals exposed to Thomas Eric Duncan, the man who inadvertently brought Ebola from Liberia to Dallas in 2014
: Regular monitoring of "syndromes" such as influenza-like illnesses (ILI), purchases of certain OTC medications, work absenteeism, and other factors to identify outbreaks of new or unexpected diseases and potential bioterrorism events
Use selected institutions or groups to give health data on certain diseases, useful for monitoring trends, detecting outbreaks on certain diseases
Restrictive because just those certain institutions and groups
Unofficial sources like blogs, social media, etc.
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