Modern World History - The Enlightenment
Terms in this set (30)
18th century intellectual movement that emphasized the use of reason and the scientific method as means of obtaining knowledge
English political philosopher who advocated a strong king as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679). Said mankind was naturally evil.
17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property. Believed that mankind was a tabula rasa
A thinker who uses logic and reason to investigate the nature of the universe, human society and morality
Gatherings of the social, political, and cultural elite in France during the Enlightenment. Usually held by wealthy women.
(1694-1778) French philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church (used satire)
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
The most famous composer of neoclassical musical typical of the Enlightenment Era
Catherine the Great
(1729-1796) Empress of Russia who greatly increased the territory of the empire, its wealth & education/benefits for people; inspired by French Enlightenment
referred to as Classical music was centered in Austria & Germany from 1750-1825. Large concert halls were built to emerging middle class and more musicians were needed, the result was the development of the symphony. 100 members, known as the four-movement composition. More elegant and simple
A king or queen that ruled by the philosophies of the Enlightenment; justified their right to rule by their usefulness to society
Jean Jacques Rousseau
A French man who believed that Human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy. Believed private property corrupts
Fair and equal treatment of prisoners/punishments should fit crimes. Wrote " On Crimes and Punishments". Against torture.
British feminist of the eighteenth century who argued for women's equality with men, even in voting, in her 1792 "Vindication of the Rights of Women."
Baron de Montesquieu
French aristocrat who wanted to limit royal absolutism; Wrote The Spirit of Laws, urging that power be separated between executive, legislative, and judicial branches, each balancing out the others, thus preventing despotism and preserving freedom. This greatly influenced writers of the US Constitution.
Italian scientist who used a telescope to study the heavens but was forced to renounce his belief in heliocentric theory by the Vatican
English scientist, proposed the theory of gravity. Developed laws of motion and mechanics
Author of the Declaration of Independence. Borrowed heavily from John Locke's philosophy to form the United States.
Earth-centered view of the universe that came from the Greek philosopher Aristotle. Supported by the Catholic Church prior to the Scientific Revolution
Sun centered view of the universe. Developed by Copernicus and advocated by Galileo. Challenged the official viewpoint of the Church.
Using hypothesis, observation, and experimentation to arrive at a rational explanation for events.
agreement that people enter to allow themselves to be governed. People choose to give up some freedoms for organized society. Advocated by Locke and Rousseau.
Non-religious. Of the world
in the belief that God created the universe and left it to run according to natural laws. A scientific approach to God and Creation.
Declaration of Independence
Document penned by Thomas Jefferson in 1776 establishing the United States and what it would stand for
Checks and Balances
A system by which each branch of government limits power of other branches. Idea proposed by Montesquieu
A political effect of the Enlightenment
Led to democratic revolutions in the United States, France and South America.
European city that was the center of Enlightenment ideas
His printing press helped to spread scientific and Enlightenment ideas
Traditional religious institution led by the Pope that was frequently challenged by Enlightenment ideas
Include life, liberty and property. The Enlightenment taught that everyone received these from the God of Nature.