Psychology Module #3: How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions
Terms in this set (58)
A good theory produces _____, which are testable _____.
Having a(n) _____ individual as a research participant is more of a risk for the case study method of descriptive research.
The symbol for a correlation coefficient is:
In an experiment, participants are often assigned to one of two groups. The _____ condition refers to the group that does not receive the treatment.
60% of those in _____ and the United States believe that animal testing is morally acceptable.
Dr. Han is examining the impact of parental separation on student academic performance. Dr. Han defines parental separation as no contact between the child and parent for a period of 6 months or more. Academic performance is being measured using students' grade point average and end-of-year grades. Dr. Han believes that if the children have experienced parental separation that they will perform poorly in school. The idea that parental separation will negatively impact academic performance is the _______ of the study.
Which terms would most likely occur in description of a single study?
Representative sample and survey
When something extraordinary happens, such as when one person wins the lottery twice, we tend to see a pattern, such as a streak of unbelievable luck. In actuality, the two winnings are:
A correlation measures the relationship between two variables; an experiment often measures:
Cause and effect
Samantha expresses that she believes homosexuality is against her religion. The words she has chosen to use to express her opinion reflect her _____.
A good theory has which of the following characteristics?
It includes an integrated set of principles
Dr. Petrie administers surveys to 15 migrants from Somalia who reside in Minnesota. Dr. Petrie is interested in their immigration experiences. After examining the survey answers, Dr. Petrie concludes that all immigrants in Minnesota have experienced racism and discrimination since coming to the United States. What are some problems with this study?
Sample size and selection bias
Dr. James found a correlation of -0.81 between obesity and the consumption of low-fat foods. This would be considered a(n) _____ negative correlation.
Pharmaceutical studies sometimes test their experimental drugs against an already available medication, known as a comparator, to see if the experimental drug works the same or better than the comparator medication. Those subjects who get assigned to the comparator group would be in the:
Dr. Nguyen wants to conduct research on a new potential vaccine for Alzheimer's on rats with the hopes that the research will be successful and can progress to human trials. He needs to have his research idea reviewed by the_______.
Institutional Review Board
The results of Dr. Zimmerman's study on parenting styles were controversial, and other researchers were eager to replicate the study to see if they got the same results. What information about Dr. Zimmerman's study would these other researchers typically need in order to replicate it?
Kayla sat in her local fast food restaurant and recorded what people ordered. She is using what descriptive method?
Humans tend to perceive order in random sequences because they are eager to make sense of the world. Thus, people are not very good at believing in chance-related explanations for seemingly extraordinary events. Without falling prey to this bias, of the following poker hands, choose the LEAST likely to occur
Both hands are equally likely
Both subjects and study sites participating in a Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) study are blinded as to whether the subject is receiving Drug R, the comparator, or the placebo. This is known as a(n) _____ procedure.
Dr. Hernandez is interested in how Jake and his mother interact with each other during a play environment. Dr. Hernandez should use a(n) _____ to gather the information.
Dr. Aba is conducting a study to see whether there is a relationship between birth order and shyness. Before conducting this study, Dr. Aba needs to develop an operational definition of:
Both shyness and birth order
A pharmaceutical company has developed a new medication to treat depression. The results of the company's studies indicate that the medication significantly reduces symptoms of depression in 90 percent of people diagnosed with depression. However, numerous well-constructed replications of these studies fail to obtain the same results; rather, the replication studies indicate that the new medication is no more effective than a placebo in reducing the symptoms of depression. We can conclude that it is likely that:
The new medication is not an effective treatment for depression
Roger believes he has extrasensory perception (ESP). He predicts that he will be able to correctly guess heads or tails at least 85 times out of 100 coin flips. Because this is a testable prediction, it is a(n) _____.
Dr. Aba is conducting a study to see whether there is a relationship between birth order and shyness. To assess participants' shyness, Dr. Aba uses a questionnaire: a score of 0-5 on the questionnaire indicates extreme shyness; 6-10, moderate shyness; 11-15, normal shyness; 16-20, moderate lack of shyness; and 21-25, extreme lack of shyness. This use of the questionnaire establishes a(n) _____ of shyness.
Sabrina stated there was a _____ correlation between food intake and weight as the scores tended to rise and fall together.
Which theory implies the hypothesis that hungry adults will score higher on a math test than adults who are not hungry?
Hunger improves intellectual performance
A professor conducts a survey of her class about whether the number of breaks is adequate for the three-hour course. For her survey, she decides to take all 40 students' names and assigns them each a number in order to have 20 students randomly chosen by her computer program. One could say that her survey will be both a(n) _____ and a random sample.
Dr. Hernandez is interested in parent-child interaction during a play environment. Dr. Hernandez will more than likely use _______ to collect data.
Perry's mother just called to tell him that, in a single day, five different men she met on an over-50 Internet dating forum invited her out on dates. Perry cannot believe it! Based on statistical concepts, which of the following statements can be used to explain his mother's news?
With a large enough sample, any theoretical possibility can occur
Dr. Hernandez is interested in parent-child interaction during a play environment. Which of the following would be the best option for this research topic?
Joan won the lottery twice, both with large jackpots. Her friends tell her to keep playing the lottery because she is on a lucky roll. In reality, the two winnings are:
Dr. Petrie is interested in the immigration experiences of Somalian migrants in Minnesota. Dr. Psychologist should consider using a(n) ______ for this research.
In our everyday conversations, we may use this term to mean a hunch. In science, this term is linked with observations.
Which of the following qualities would researchers in psychology ascribe to a "good" theory?
It should organize observations and imply clear, testable predictions.
To determine if a finding from one study can be applied to other populations, it is necessary for researchers to _____________ variables, thus making it possible for other researchers to try to _____________ the study.
Operationally define; replicate
Although one goal of the case study method is to uncover universal principles, it is possible that the person being studied is so atypical that the:
Findings lead to mistaken conclusions about the population of interest.
Surveys on television news programs and on the Internet tend to ____________ for an unrepresentative sample by simply ________ more people.
Jack is a graduate student in sociology who cannot understand why the people who took his survey responded poorly to his questions on welfare reform. His advisor tells him that he may want to rephrase his questions because the way he had worded them most likely:
Affected the opinions respondents expressed.
One thinking error that is made by many people is to assume that a strong correlation ______________. However, this is not true, regardless of how strong a relationship there is between two variables.
Mr. Brown has gathered evidence that students' self-esteem is negatively correlated with their typical levels of anxiety. Before he uses this evidence to conclude that self-esteem reduces anxiety, Mr. Brown should be reminded that:
Correlation does not prove causation
Dr. Jacobiac prescribes exercise for his patients with depression because it has been shown that people who exercise have lower than average incidences of depression. Dr. Jacobiac is relying on findings from correlational studies and is on shaky ground because he does not know if there is a:
Cause-effect relationship between exercise and depression
The director of research at a major pharmaceutical company had to present the findings of a failed bipolar disorder research trial. Statistical analysis showed that all research participants took the medication as prescribed, that the drug levels were within range, and that all study procedures were followed per the protocol. Despite all of this, the experimental medication did not separate from the control condition (that is, the experimental medication was no more effective than the control condition). Upon further investigation, it was determined that a number of the research sites were conducting supportive psychotherapy with the participants. The results can be attributed to the supportive psychotherapy, which was a:
Based on the results of laboratory research it is the resulting _____, not the specific findings, that help explain everyday behavior.
According to your text, which of the following is the most important point to remember about research done in psychological science?
Psychological science focuses less on particular behaviors than on seeking general principles that help explain many behaviors
Under the American Psychological Association's ethical code for psychologists, psychological researchers:
Must respect the dignity and welfare of the research participants
The ethical requirement of informed consent means that:
Participants must be completely informed about the purpose and conditions of the research, and must be free to withdraw from the research at any time
Tonya participated in a psychology research project that involved solving a number of arithmetic problems. During the experiment, she was informed that her solutions were incorrect. After the experiment was completed, a research assistant explained the purpose of the experiment. He told Tonya that she had actually answered all items correctly, and then explained why the experiment required that she be told that her answers were wrong. This stage of the research represents:
By organizing isolated facts, a theory ultimately __________ things.
You are watching CNN and see an online survey asking for viewers to respond with their view on the Iraq war. Later in the broadcast, the results are posted. Using your critical thinking, you know that these types of surveys are NOT truly:
Representative and random
______________ is a type of descriptive research method.
You are conducting a study for which it is critical that the findings be representative of the population of interest. Which of the following research methods runs the greatest risk that its findings may be unrepresentative of what is generally true?
The case study method
A _______________ correlation indicates that two sets of scores tend to rise or fall together; for example, height and weight. A(n) _______________ correlation indicates that two sets of scores have an inverse relationship: as one goes up the other goes down; for example, time spent brushing teeth and decay.
Which of the following is a feature of the correlational research method?
A correlation of +0.70 between children's physical height and popularity among their peers indicates that:
Higher levels of popularity among peers is associated with greater physical height in children
Which method offers the most reliable way of assessing whether caffeine consumption causes athletic performance to be boosted?
To control for experimenter bias and for extraneous variables (for example, severity of condition, attitudes, age), researchers assign research participants to groups by:
In an experiment, researchers manipulate one or more _______________ and then determine whether this manipulation had an effect on the _______________.
Independent variables; dependent variables
Professor Garcia would like to study parental spanking and aggressive behavior in children. Which of the following research methods would NOT be feasible due to ethical problems associated with trying to manipulate the spanking variable?