Upgrade to remove ads
Cell Biology Exam 1: chapters 1 - 5
Terms in this set (129)
Hooke found what when looking through a microscopic eyepiece?
He saw small "Cubicles" named them cells
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek and Hooke saw what together?
Organisms are generated only from existing organisms.
What are polysaccarides?
A long chain of monosaccharide monomers linked together.
What are the four major classes of biomolecules?
Polysaccharides, fats/lipids, proteins, Nucleic Acids
A saccharide chain made of between 3 and 50 monomers.
A saccharide chain made of more than 50 monomers.
What is the general formula for a carbohydrate?
What are the four uses of carbohydrates?
Energy Storage, Structural Component, Nucleotide composition, Cell Signalling
What are the two types of glucose?
D and L
Two Monosaccharide monomers are bound together. What reaction do they undergo, and what bond do they form?
Condensation Reaction, glycosidic.
Is a glycosidic bond covalent or ionic?
alpha-D-Glucose is used in what?
Starch and Glycogen
beta-D-Glucose is used in what?
What is the building block of Lipids?
What are the properties of Iipids?
Water insoluble, hydrophobic or amphipathic, contain long hydrocarbon chains or aromatic rings.
What is amphipathic mean?
The molecule has both hydrophobic and hydrophillic regions.
What are the functions of lipids?
Energy Storage, Cell membrane structure, cell signaling.
A fatty acid with a carbon to carbon double bond is what?
A fatty acid WITHOUT a carbon to carbon double bond is what?
Triacylglycerols are made of what?
A glycerol head with three fatty acid tails.
Saturated oils are...
Solid at room temperature.
Unsaturated oils are...
Liquid at room temperature.
True or false? Fatty acids for fat droplets in the cytoplasm.
Phospholipids are made of what?
Polar head, two fatty acid tails.
What is the polar head of a phospholipid comprised of?
A polar group, phosphate, and a glycerol.
Phospholipids have what important job?
They make up the cell membrane.
Gylcolipids are made of what?
a polar head, two fatty acid tails.
What is the glycolipids polar head made of?
a sugar, and a glycerol.
What is a steroid?
a multi-ring structure lipid.
What is hydrophobic bonds?
Repulsion by water on hydrophobic molecules that force hydrophobic molecules together.
Fatty Acids form what in water?
Film on top or a ring structure called a micelle
Triacylglycerols form what in water?
Large spherical fat droplets.
Phospholipids and Glycolipids form what in water?
self-sealing lipid bilayers that are the basis for cellular membranes.
Nucleic Acids are made of what?
What are nucleotides made of?
A phosphate, sugar, and a nitrogenous base.
What are the functions of nucleotides?
Making up DNA and RNA, Information storage in DNA, energy storage, coenzyme function, signaling.
A (base, Nucleoside)
G (base, Nucleoside)
C (base, Nucleoside)
U (base, Nucleoside)
T (base, Nucleoside)
What is the bond between the base and the sugar in a nucleic acid?
What is the bond between the phosophate groups of nucleic acids?
What is the difference between ribose and deoxyribose?
the hydroxyl group instead of hydrogen on position 2 of the sugar.
What is the difference between Uracil and Thymine?
Uracil has two HC's on its main ring where Thymine has one HC and one H3C.
True of false? RNA uses thymine instead of uracil.
False. DNA uses thymine, RNA uses uracil.
How are the phosphate backbones of DNA aligned?
antiparallel with one side running 5' to 3' and the other running 3' to 5'
What are the bonds between phosphate groups of an ATP molecule called?
What is a hydrolysis reaction?
The splitting of a bond by the addition of a molecule of water. Energetically favorable.
What is a condensation reaction?
The binding of a bond by the removal of a molecule of water. Energetically unfavorable.
Enzymes do what to a molecules reaction?
The metabolic system of an organism is based on what two reactions working together?
Catabolic and anabolic reactions
What is catalysis?
The acceleration of reactions needed to sustain life.
How do enzymes catalyze reactions?
By lowering the activating energy required to make the reaction run.
What is the Delta G for a favorable reaction? Equilibrium K? Explain
Negative, big K, since the reaction is favorable there will be more product created than there is reactant left over at equilibrium. [x]/[y]
What is the Delta G for a non-favorable reaction? Equilibrium K?
Positive, small K, since the reaction is non-favorable there will be more reactant left than there was product produced at equilibrium. [x]/[y]
If the reaction of x->y is unfavorable, would the reaction
y->x still be unfavorable?
No, since the reaction would be reversed, the activation energy would be as well.
How does reaction coupling work?
By coupling an unfavorable reaction with a favorable one you allow both reactions to run simultaneously, the unfavorable rxn using the excess free energy from the favorable.
What are the most common activated carriers?
ATP, NADH, NADPH
True or False, biological synthesis reaction require energy to run?
True, it takes energy to make bonds between atoms.
What is a protein made of?
What are the parts of an Amino Acid?
Amino, Hydrogen, Carboxyl, and an R-Group
True or false? Proteins have one function in the body.
False, Proteins have hundreds of different uses within biology
What are the four different groups of amino acids?
Acidic, basic, uncharged polar, nonpolar.
Where do amino acids get their chemical characteristics and functions?
What chain charge do acidic amino acids have?
What chain charge do basic amino acids have?
What kind of chain do uncharged polar amino acids have?
a neutral chain consisting of a neutral oxygen or nitrogen which makes it polar
True or False. Uncharged polar amino acids are hydrophobic.
False, they are hydrophillic.
What kind of chain do non polar amino acids have?
a completely neutral and non polar chain normally consisting of a large hydrocarbon tail or aromatic ring.
True or false. Disulfide bonds can form between amino acids?
True, in the amino acid cysteine, the sulfur atom can bond with another to form a covalent disulfide bond.
What is the bond between two amino acids?
true or false, proteins and polypeptide chains are completely different.
False, Proteins are macromolecules made up of long chains of amino acids bound by PEPTIDE bonds.
What reaction binds two amino acids together?
What is the primary structure of a protein?
The sequence of amino acids
What is the secondary structure of a protein?
Regions of the protein that fold in particular conformations called alpha helix or beta sheet
What is the tertiary structure of a protein?
It's 3D shape/folding of a protein. Gives the protein it's function.
What is quaternary structure?
When two or more polypeptides combine to make one molecule.
True or False, Proteins fold into energetically unfavorable confirmations?
False. Proteins fold into the most energetically favorable confirmation possible.
What are the three "Bonds" that determine protein structure?
Electrostatic interactions, hydrogen bonding, and van der waal attractions.
How do hydrophobic forces contribute to protein folding?
Hydrophobic r-chains in the amino acid chain will point in toward the center of the protein where as the hydrophillic regions of the chain will point out.
What type of bond makes alpha helix structures?
hydrogen bonds between every fourth amino acid.
What type of bond makes beta sheets?
hydrogen bonds between amino acid chains makes a sheet like structure.
What type of bonds are in a proteins primary structure?
Covalent peptide bonds
What type of bonding takes place in a proteins secondary structure?
What type of bonds take place in a proteins tertiary structure?
Disulfide, hydrogen, ionic (electrostatic), van der waal, and hydrophobic interactions.
How do you determine primary protein structure?
How do you determine secondary protein structure?
How do you determine tertiary protein structure?
X-ray crystallography and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy
A high Km value means what regarding bond strength between enzyme and substrate?
There is very little bond strength between the substrate and the enzyme
A low Km value means what regarding bond strength between enzyme and substrate?
There is a large amount of intermolecular attractions.
What is a ligand?
Any molecule that is bound to a protein.
What happens in feedback inhibition?
A late product of the reaction binds with the enzyme to stop production.
What type of regulation is feedback inhibition?
Negative regulation (Stops the reaction)
Is there another type of regulation other than negative?
Yes, positive regulation causes enzymes to start working or work better.
What is protein phosphorylation?
The activating and inactivation of a protein by the adding or removal of a phosphate.
What molecule(s) add(s) a phosphate to a protein in a phosphorylation?
Protein Kinase and ATP
What molecule removes a phosphate from a protein in a dephosphorylation?
What do GTP-binding proteins do?
They use the terminal phosphate to activate or inactivate proteins.
What kind of molecule is an anti-body?
What kind of molecule is an enzyme?
Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty found what?
That DNA is the genetic material and can be passed on.
Who used T2 bacteriophage and radioactive P and S in their experiments?
Hershey and Chase
What two organelles does the bacteriophage consist of?
DNA and protein
What did Griffith do?
Showed that genetic material could be transferred between bacteria.
How can the two strands of DNA be separated?
Denaturation by high temp or high pH.
How can two separate strands of DNA be joined?
Renaturation by low temp or low pH
What does the Tm of DNA depend on?
G-C concentration and molecule length
What is a probe and what is it used for in FISH?
a short piece of DNA labeled for detection. Forms complimentary base pairs with target sequence.
What is FISH?
Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization
What are the two processes of the cell cycle?
Interphase and mitosis
What is interphase?
when chromosomes are duplicated
What is mitosis?
When the diplicated chromosomes are distributed.
What does a telomere do?
Caps the ends of chromosomes so the cell knows where the end of the chromosome is.
What is a centromere?
Allows duplicated chromosomes to be separated during M phase.
What is the most condensed form of chromatic called?
What is the non-interphase chromatin called?
What does acetylation do to chromatin structure?
It causes the histone tails to lose their positive charge and not bind to DNA or other nucleosomes.
How do histone tails attach to DNA?
Their positive tail heads attach to the negatively charged phosphate groups of the DNA backbone.
What are the two ways to modify chromatin structure?
Chromatin remodeling complexes and histone modifications.
What do nucleosome core particles consist of?
8 histones, two of each.
What binds chromatin into it's looped configuration?
If a chromatin string is in it's string and bead form what is missing?
What does Chromatin remodeling complex do?
Uses the energy released in ATP hydrolysis to move the location of the DNA around the nucleosome core.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
The Structure and Function of Large Biological Mol…
Campbell Biology 10th edition chapter 5
Chapter 3 Biology Raven
Chapter 5: Macromolecules
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Cardiac Medication Doses
Cardiac Medication Actions
Cardiac Medication Classes