Gram-negative septic shock results from the following events. What is the second step?
LPS is released from gram-negative bacteria
Figure 14.1 shows the incidence of influenza during a typical year. Which letter on the graph indicates the endemic level?
Patients developed inflammation a few hours following eye surgery. Instruments and solutions were sterile, and the Limulus assay was positive. The patients' inflammation was due to
Bacteria that cause periodontal disease have adhesins for receptors on streptococci that colonize on teeth. This indicates that
Streptococcal colonization is necessary for periodontal disease
Pseudomonas bacteria colonized the bile duct of a patient following his liver transplant surgery. This is an example of a
One effect of washing regularly with antibacterial agents is the removal of normal microbiota. This can result in
increased susceptibility to disease
During a 6-month period, 239 cases of pneumonia occurred in a town of 300 people. A clinical case was defined as fever ≥39°C lasting >2 days with three or more symptoms (i.e., chills, sweats, severe headache, cough, aching muscles/joints, fatigue, or feeling ill). A laboratory-confirmed case was defined as a positive result for antibodies against Coxiella burnetii. Before the outbreak, 2000 sheep were kept northwest of the town. Of the 20 sheep tested from the flock, 15 were positive for C. burnetii antibodies. Wind blew from the northwest, and rainfall was 0.5 cm compared with 7 to 10 cm during each of the previous 3 years.
Situation 14.1 is an example of
Mechanical transmission differs from biological transmission in that mechanical transmission
doesn't involve specific diseases
Koch's postulates don't apply to all diseases because
Not all diseases are caused by microorganisms.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a two-part exotoxin. The most likely pathologic effect of this toxin is
Inhibition of protein synthesis
Botulism is caused by a proteinaceous exotoxin; therefore it can easily be prevented by
Boiling food prior to consumption.
Koch observed Bacillus anthracis multiplying in the blood of cattle. What is this condition called?
Emergence of infectious diseases can be due to all of the following EXCEPT
Microbes trying to cause disease
Transient microbiota differ from normal microbiota because transient microbiota
Are present for a relatively short time
Thirty-two people in San Francisco who ate jackfish caught at Midway Island developed malaise, nausea, blurred vision, breathing difficulty, and numbness from 3 to 6 hours after eating. The most likely cause of this food intoxication is
The most frequently used portal of entry for pathogens is the
Mucous membrane of the respiratory tract
Which of the following does NOT contribute to the virulence of a pathogen?
All of the above contribute to a pathogen's virulence
Cholera toxin polypeptide A binds to surface gangliosides on target cells. If the gangliosides were removed,
Polypeptide B would not be able to enter the cells