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What do sociologists call two or more people who identify and interact with one another?

a social group

What is the correct sociological term for all people with a common status, such as "college students"?

a category

A temporary, loosely formed collection of people who may or may not interact is a


Imagine you are watching several dozen passengers sitting in an airport gate area waiting to board a plane.
These people are an example of a


Charles Horton Cooley referred to a small social group whose members share personal and enduring
relationships as

a primary group.

Why did Cooley refer to some groups as "primary groups"?

a. They are among the first groups we experience in life.
b. They have primary importance in the socialization process.
c. They contain the people most important in our lives.

Which of the following is every society's MOST important primary group?

the family

Assume you are one of many people assembled at a university graduation ceremony. The term that BEST
describes this gathering is a

secondary group.

A secondary group is a social group that

is impersonal and engages in some specific activity.

Read the list of traits below. Which of these traits is NOT a characteristic of secondary groups?

a. large size
b. members have weak emotional ties
d. often short-term duration

Which of the following is the BEST example of a primary group?

a family that has gathered to celebrate a religious holiday

Which of the following is the BEST example of a secondary group?

a Microsoft Corporation awards banquet

In general, we see _______ as a means to an end; we see _____ as an end in itself.

a secondary group; a primary group

What is the term for group leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks?

instrumental leadership

Which concept refers to group leadership that emphasizes collective well-being?

expressive leadership

You are part of a task force with a group leader who has a distant relationship with the group members and who is concerned with getting the job done. Which type of leader does your task force have?

an instrumental leader

In your group, the leader is skilled at using humor to reduce tension and lighten serious moments. Which type of leader does your group have?

an expressive leader

Which type of leadership style takes charge of making decisions and makes sure people do what they are told?

authoritarian leadership

Which type of leader encourages everyone in a group to have a say in what happens?

democratic leader

What type of leaders downplay their own power, letting the group function more or less on its own?

laissez-faire leaders

Which of the following situations illustrates the operation of "groupthink"?

Group members seek agreement that closes off other points of view.

What is the sociological term coined by Irving Janis for a limited understanding of some issue resulting from group conformity?


Here are four statements describing group dynamics. Which of them is NOT an expression of groupthink?

a. Group members quickly settle on a position and then they treat other possibilities as oppositional.
b. Group members encourage each other to see the issue from only one point of view.
c. Group members treat reaching consensus as more important than encouraging everyone to speak up openly.
d. The group seeks diverse members and ends up being unable to reach a consensus.

Which of the following concepts refers to a social group that people use as a point of reference in making evaluations or decisions?

reference group

Which type of social group commands a member's esteem and loyalty?

an in-group

A social group toward which a person feels competition or opposition is which of the following?

an out-group

Which concept refers to a social group with only two members?

a dyad

Which statement correctly reflects Simmel's interpretation of the dyad?

Dyads are less stable than groups with many members.

The concept "triad" refers to which of the following?

a social group with three members

In general, which of the following categories of people are "well connected" in terms of social networks?

a. young people
b. well-educated people
c. people living in cities

Formal organizations are

large secondary groups with a goal orientation.

Which type of formal organization is sometimes called a "voluntary association"?

normative organizations

If you were a prisoner, a maximum-security prison would be which of the following types of organizations from your point of view?

a coercive organization

Which type of formal organization do people join in order to obtain money and other material benefits?

utilitarian organization

Assume you are a parent of a child in school. From your point of view, what type of organization is a school's parent-teacher association (PTA)?

a normative organization

From the point of view of anyone considered to be an "inmate," what type of formal organization is the person in?

a coercive organization

The concept "bureaucracy" refers to

an organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently.

In principle, bureaucratic organizations pay little attention to


Max Weber noted many traits of bureaucracy. Which of the following list is NOT one of them?

b. arranging offices in a hierarchy
c. enacting many rules and regulations
d. providing workers with highly specialized jobs

Max Weber argued that formal organizations were efficient, but he cautioned that they can have harmful effects on people. As he saw it, what is the danger?

Organizations create alienation.

What is Robert Merton's term for a preoccupation with rules and regulations to the point of keeping an organization from accomplishing its goals?

bureaucratic ritualism

The emergency room clerk who keeps a bleeding patient waiting while filling out lots of paperwork is a classic example of bureaucratic


The tendency of bureaucratic organizations to perpetuate themselves in order to keep going is called bureaucratic


Which of these concepts was used by Robert Michels to refer to the rule of the many by the few?


In the "iron law of oligarchy," Robert Michels stated that bureaucracy always means

the few rule the many.

The success story of the McDonald's organization explains

that the organizational principles of McDonald's have come to dominate our social life.

The concept "McDonaldization" of society refers to

McDonald's organizational principles moving to dominate all of society.

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