30 terms

Chapter 4 sociology

The process by which people act and react in relation to others is called
social interaction.
Which of the following concepts defines a social position that a person holds?
At any given time you hold a number of statuses. These statuses make up your
status set.
What concept refers to a social position that is received at birth or involuntarily assumed later in life?
ascribed status
Which concept refers to a social position that is assumed voluntarily and that reflects a significant measure of personal ability and effort?
achieved status
Which concept refers to a status that has special importance for social identity, often shaping a person's entire life?
master status
Julie is a police officer who finds that wherever she goes in her small town, people seem to think of her as a "cop." Julie is experiencing the effects of which of the following?
master status
Akbar is an honor student. In sociological terms, being an honor student is an example of which of the following?
achieved status
Which item in the following list might serve as a master status?
a. occupation
b. physical or mental disability
c. gender
Sociologists use what concept to refer to behavior that people expect from someone who holds a particular status?
A role set refers to
a number of roles attached to a single status.
What is the concept that refers to the conflict among roles corresponding to two or more statuses?
role conflict
Shawna is an excellent artist, but as a mother she feels that she cannot work and devote enough time to her family. She is experiencing
role conflict.
Which of the following is involved when a surgeon chooses not to operate on her own son because the personal involvement of motherhood could impair her professional objectivity as a physician?
role conflict
Which concept refers to the tension among roles connected to a single status?
role strain
Which of the following is involved when a plant supervisor wants to be a good friend and confidante to the workers, but must remain distant in order to rate the workers' performances?
role strain
What term does the text use for the process by which people disengage from important social roles?
role exit
Rebuilding relationships with people who knew you in an earlier period of life is a common experience for those who are undergoing which of the following?
role exit
Nonverbal communication refers to
body movements, gestures, and facial expressions.
Which of the following is an important element of nonverbal communication?
a. hand gestures
b. eye contact
c. body language
"Personal space" refers to
the surrounding area over which an individual makes some claim to privacy.
In the United States, people stand farther away from one another when they are talking than two people would in a Middle Eastern nation. This pattern reveals differences in meaning attached to
personal space.
Smiling and making polite remarks to people we do not like is an example of
idealizing a personal performance.
In terms of dramaturgical analysis, another term for helping a person to "save face," or avoid embarrassment, is
Tact is a common response in potentially embarrassing situations because
everyone feels discomfort when a constructed reality breaks down.
Cultures differ in terms of
a. what triggers emotions.
b. the rules for how people display emotions.
c. how people value emotions.
The English language often treats whatever has greater value, force, or significance as
Humor is created when people
create and contrast two different realities.
In general, an important foundation of humor is
incongruity—differences in meaning.`
When interacting with people of an unfamiliar cultural background,
what is funny to people in one society may not be funny to those from another society.