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Chapter 6: Learning
Terms in this set (45)
The formation of a new conditioned response tendency.
A conflict situation in which a choice must be made between two unattractive goals.
A systematic approach to changing behavior through the application of the principles of conditioning.
A written agreement outlining a promise to adhere to the contingencies of a behavior modification program.
A type of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus.
Conditioned response (CR)
A learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning.
Conditioned stimulus (CS)
A previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response.
Reinforcing every instance of a designated response.
A graphic record of reinforcement and responding in a Skinner box as a function of time.
Cues that influence operant behavior by indicating the probable consequences (reinforcement or nonreinforcement) of a response.
To draw out or bring forth.
To send forth.
A type of learning in which an organism acquires a response that decreases or ends some aversive stimulation.
Efforts to transfer the emotion attached to a UCS to a new CS.
The gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency.
Fixed interval schedule (FI)
A reinforcement schedule in which the reinforcer is given for the first response that occurs after a fixed time interval has elapsed.
Fixed ratio schedule (FR)
A reinforcement schedule in which the reinforcer is given after a fixed number of nonreinforced responses.
Higher order conditioning
A type of conditioning in which a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus.
The tendency for an animal's innate responses to interfere with conditioning processes.
A reinforcement schedule in which a designated response is reinforced only some of the time.
Learning that is not apparent from behavior when it first occurs.
Law of effect
The principle that if a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effects, the association between the stimulus and the response is strengthened.
A relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience.
Schizophrenic symptoms that involve behavioral deficits, such as flattened emotions, social withdrawal, apathy, impaired attention, and poverty of speech.
A type of learning that occurs when an organism's responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models.
A form of learning in which voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences.
Irrational fears of specific objects or situations.
Reinforcement that occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the presentation of a rewarding stimulus.
Events that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs.
An event that follows a response that weakens or suppresses the tendency to make that response.
An event following a response that strengthens the tendency to make that response.
The circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of reinforcers.
Resistance to extinction
In operant conditioning, the phenomenon that occurs when an organism continues to make a response after delivery of the reinforcer for it has been terminated.
Schedule of reinforcement
A specific presentation of reinforcers over time.
Secondary (conditioned) reinforcers
Stimulus events that acquire reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary reinforcers.
The reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired response.
A small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is systematically recorded while the consequences of the response are controlled.
In classical conditioning, the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus.
The phenomenon that occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus.
The phenomenon that occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus.`
In classical conditioning, any presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimuli
Unconditioned response (UCR)
An unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning.
Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
A stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning.
Variable-interval schedule (VI)
A reinforcement schedule in which the reinforcer is given for the first response after a variable time interval has elapsed.
Variable-ratio schedule (VR)
A reinforcement schedule in which the reinforcer is given after a variable number of nonreinforced responses.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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