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Viruses that have infected a cell and re-emerge during stress are termed ________ viruses.


One way in which retroviruses differ from all other types of viruses is that retroviruses?

have the enzyme reverse transcriptase

Which of the following is/are NOT legitimate structures for a natural virus genome?

double stranded, DNA, double stranded RNA, single stranded DNA, single stranded RNA

All infectious organisms can be considered viruses.


The infectious cycle of HIV includes all of the following steps except

the immediate killing of the host cell.

Most viruses form a capsid around the nucleic acid core. The capsid is composed of


The direction of genetic information transfer in a retrovirus (such as HIV) is

RNA to DNA to mRNA to protien

The process by which viruses destroy host cells upon release is called


The specific blood cells that HIV attaches to are the ____ cells

helper T cells

Each HIV particle possess ___ in its envelop, called gp 120, that precisely fits a cell-surface marker protein called CD4 on the surfaces of the immune system cells.


As clinically defined, AIDS is often accompanied by

lung infections and other opportunistic infections

HIV studies revealed that it is closely related to

a chimpanzee virus

The HIV spike responsible for binding the target cell is termed


The outer layer of some viruses consisting of both a host cell membrane plus viral proteins is termed a(n)


Viruses are characterized by all of the following except?

capable of independent reproduction

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