16 terms

Chapter 13 Key Issue 3

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Inner-City Physical Problems
major physical problem in inner-city neighborhoods is poor condition of housing
Process of Deterioration
as number of low-income residents increase in city, territory they occupy expands
Filtering
process of subdivision of houses and occupancy by successive waves of lower income people, ultimate result may be abandonment of dwelling
- better house maintained, longer it lasts and landlords stop maintaining when rent becomes less than costs
Redlining
drawing lines on a map to identify areas in which they will refuse to loan money
- as a result, families who try to fix homes in the area have hard time borrowing money
Urban renewal
cities identify blighted inner city neighborhoods, acquire properties from private owners, relocate residents and businesses, clear the site and build new roads and utilities, land turned over to private developers to construct new buildings/services
Public housing
many substandard inner-city houses replaced and demolished with public housing
- reserved for low-income households who pay 30% of income for rent
- accounts for less than 2% f all dwellings
- In Western Europe, governments typically don't own housing but subsidize construction cost and rent
- most high-rise public housing projects in US and Europe now considered unsatisfactory environments, problems because too many low-income families in high-density environment
- overall funding in US is lower, supply is diminished
- Britain public housing (council estates) declined because gov't forced local authorities to sell some dwellings to residents but expanded subsidies to nonprofits that build housing
Gentrification
process by which middle-class people move into deteriorated inner-city neighborhoods and renovate the housing
- attracted because of larger houses that are more substantially constructed but cheaper in inner city than suburbs, attractive architectural details, close to downtown, eliminates strain of commuting, appeal to single people and couples without children without school concerns
- Chicago white population increasing in inner-cities and African Americans/Hispanics increasing farther from center
- renovating is expensive so provide low-cost loans and tax breaks, reduce hardship on poor families forced ot move by paying for moving expenses and rent increases for 4 years
- rent renovated houses to disperse low-income families throughout instead of concentrated in large inner-city public-housing projects
Inner-City Social problems
inner cities have mostly people with low incomes, have a permanent underclass living in poverty
Underclass
inner-city residents reference because trapped in unending cycle of economic and social problems
- high unemployment, alcoholism, drugs, illiteracy, juvenile delinquency, crime, schools are bad, affordable housing hard to find,lack police and fire, shops, hospitals
Lack of Job skills
unable to compete for jobs because lack technical skills needed for most jobs because not many finish high school
- gap between skills needed and training had is increasing, no access to low-skill jobs because mostly in distant suburbs
Homeless
most people homeless because can't afford housing and no regular income
Culture of Poverty
trapped as permanent underclass because live in poverty
- inadequate child care makes single mothers choose between working or taking care of children
- not many deadbeat dads tracked town for not giving child care support and if he does move back home, they may lose welfare which makes them worse off
crime
Rate of drug use increased most rapidly in inner cities
- in high-density inner-city areas, people more likely to sell drugs standing on corner in clear view of people who may call police but drug sales in low-density automobile-oriented suburbs may occur quietly behind doors
Ethnic and Racial Segregation
African Americans/Hispanics concentrated in one or two large continuous areas of inner city where whites live in suburbs
- East and Est Side or north and south with one attracting higher-income and other is lower-status minorities
- residential areas for rich people in scenic, attractive areas possibly on hill or near water where flat, dull land near industry for poorer people
Inner-City Economic Problems
concentration of lower-income residents in inner-city neighborhoods produced financial problems because they need public services but cant pay taxes to support services
- growing gap between cost of services and availability of funds to pay them
- two choices to close gap: reduce services by closing libraries, eliminating bus routes, collecting trash less, replace less school equipment (cutbacks encourage middle-class and industries to move away from cities), raise tax revenues (drive out industries and wealthy people) so cities prefer to expand tax base through construction of new projects
Annexation
process of legally adding land area to a city
- recently in US, cities expanded by annexing peripheral land if a majority of residents in that area vote in favor
- peripheral residents desired annexation because city had better services like water, sewage disposal, trash pickup, paved roads, public transportation, police and fire
- Cities less likely to annex peripheral land today because residents prefer to organize own service than pay city taxes for them, today's cities surrounded by collection of suburban jurisdictions who residents prefer to remain legal independent