37 terms

Chapter 3: Organizational Environments and Cultures

external environments
all events outside a company that have the potential to influence or affect it
environmental change
the rae at which a company's general and specific environment in which the rate of change is slow
stable environment
an environment in which the rate of change is slow
dynamic environment
an environment in which the rate of change is fast.
punctuated equilibrium theory
the theory that companies go through long periods of stability , followed y short periods of dynamic, fundamental change, and fininshing wht a return to stability.
environmental complexity
the number and the intensity of external factors in the environment that affect organizations
simple environment
an environment with few environmental factors
complex environment
an environment with many environmental factors
resource scarcity
the abundance or shortage of critical organizational resources in an organization's external environment.
extent to which managers can understand or predict which environmental changes and tends will affect their businesses
general environment
the economic, technological, sociocultural, and political trends that indirectly affect all organizations
specific environment
the customers, competitors, suppliers, industry regulations, and advocacy groups that are unique to an industry and directly affect how a company does business.
business confidence indices
indices that show managers' level of confidence about future business growth.
the knowledge, tools, and techniques used to transform input into output.
companies in the same industry that sell similar products or services to customers
competitive analysis
a process for monitoring the competition that involves identifying competition, anticipating their moves, and determining their strengths and weaknesses
companies that provide material, human, financial, and informational resources to other companies
supplier dependence
the degree to which a cmpany relies on a supplier because of the importance of the supplier's product to the compnay and the difficulty of finding other sources of that product.
buyer dependence
the degree to which a supplier relies on a buyer because of the importance of that buyer to the supplier and the difficulty of finding other buyers for its products
opportunistic behavior
a transaction in which one party in the relationship benefits at the expense of the other
relationship behavior
the establishment of mututally beneficial, long-term exchanges between buyers and suppliers.
industry regulation
regulations and rules that govern the business practices and procedures of specific industries, businesses, and professions.
advcacy groups
concerned citizens who band together to try to influence the business practices of speific industries, businesses, and professions
public communications
an advocacy group tactic that relies on voluntary participation by the news media and the advertising industry to get the advocacy group's message out.
media advocacy
an advocacy group tactic that involves framing issues as public issues; exposing questionable, exploitative, or unethical practices; and forcing media time or creating controversy that is likely to recieve extensive news coverage.
product boycott
an advocacy group tactic that involves protesting a company's actions by persuading consumers not to purchase its product or service
environmental scanning
searching the environment for important events or issues that might affect an organization
cognitive maps
graphic depictions of how managers believe environmental factors relate to possible organizational actions.
internal environment
the events and tends inside an organization that affect management, employess, and organizational culture
organizational culture
the values, beliefs, and attitudes shared by organizational members
organizational stories
stories told by organizational members to make sense of organizational events and changes and to emphasize culturally consistent assumptions, decisions, and actions.
organizational heros
people celebrated for their qualities and achievements within an organization.
company vision
a company's purpose or reason for existing
consistent organizaitonal culture
a company culture in which the company actively defines and teaches organizational values, beliefs, and attitudes.
behavioral addition
the process of having managers and employess perform new behaviors that are central to and symbolic of the new organizational culture that a company wants to create.
behavioral substitution
the process of having managers and employees perform new behaviors central to the "new" organizational culture in place of behaviors that were central to the "old" organizaitonal culture.
visible artifacts
visible signs of an organization's culture, such as the office design and layout, company dress code, and company benifits and perks, like stock options, personal parking spaces, or the private company dining room.