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50 terms

CHAPTER 2 SOCIOLOGY

STUDY
PLAY
T/F
People around the world have much the same outward appearance and wear the same clothing and bodily
decoration.
FALSE
T/F
Culture is the ways of thinking, ways of acting, and material objects that together form a people's way of life.
TRUE
T/F
An example of nonmaterial culture would be the types of vehicles people use to get around.
FALSE
T/F
Experiencing an unfamiliar culture can generate culture shock.
TRUE
Symbols refer to anything that carries meaning that is recognized by people who share a culture.T/F
TRUE
T/F
Understanding symbols allows people to make sense of their surroundings.
TRUE
T/F
The gesture we commonly call "thumbs up" is used in most of the world's societies to signify that something is
very good.
FALSE
T/F
The Sapir-Whorf thesis states that the language we use shapes the reality we perceive.
TRUE
T/F
Values are standards that serve as broad guidelines for social living.
TRUE
T/F
Compared to cultures around the world, the way of life in the United States emphasizes individualism.
TRUE
T/F
Mores are norms that have great moral significance.
TRUE
T/F
Values and norms help to define a society's "ideal culture."
TRUE
T/F
Technology refers to knowledge people use to make a way of life in their surroundings./F
TRUE
T/F
Subculture is more at odds with dominant culture than counterculture.
FALSE
T/F
Cultural lag refers to the fact that some cultural elements change more quickly than others.
TRUE
T/F
Cultural change results from invention, discovery, and diffusion.
TRUE
T/F
Cultural relativism means using your own cultural standards to evaluate another culture.
FALSE
What is the term for the ways of thinking, ways of acting, and material objects that together form a people's
way of life?
culture
The United States is multicultural because
in this country we find many different languages and ways of life.
As a part of human culture, religion is an example of
nonmaterial culture.
The intangible world of ideas created by members of a society is referred to as
nonmaterial culture.
Cars, computers, and iPhones are all examples of which of the following?
material culture
Sociologists define a symbol as
anything that carries meaning to people who share a culture.
The fact that text messaging is based on a new set of symbols shows us that
a. today's young people are creating new symbols.
b. there are many ways to use symbols to communicate.
c. culture changes over time.
d. ALL THESE ARE CORRECT RESPONSES
Cultural transmission refers to the process of
passing cultural patterns from one generation to another.
Which of the following statements MOST closely conveys the point of the Sapir-Whorf thesis?
People see the world through the cultural lens of their language.
Standards by which people who share culture define what is desirable, good, and beautiful are called
values.
The dominant values of U.S. culture include which of the following?
a belief in individualism
__________ are rules about everyday, casual living; __________ are rules with great moral significance.
Folkways; mores
Wrongdoing, such as an adult forcing a child to engage in sexual activity, is an example of violating cultural
mores.
An act of kindness, such as opening the door for an elderly man, illustrates conforming to
folkways.
Elements of social control in everyday life include
a. shame.
b. guilt.
c. sanctions, including the response of other people.
d. ALL OF THESE RESPONSES ARE CORRECT
The fact that some married men and married women are sexually unfaithful to their spouses is an example of _____
culture, while the fact that most adults say they support the idea of sexual fidelity is an example of _____ culture.
real; ideal
Knowledge that people use to make a way of life in their surroundings is called
technology.
The distinction between high culture and popular culture is based mostly on
the social standing of the people who display the cultural pattern.
Cultural patterns that are widespread among a society's population are referred to as
popular culture.
Subculture refers to
cultural patterns that set off a part of a society's population.
Multiculturalism is defined as
a perspective recognizing the cultural diversity of the United States and promoting equality of all cultural
traditions.
Counterculture refers to
cultural patterns that oppose those that are widely held.
Cultural integration refers to the fact that
change in one dimension of a cultural system usually causes changes in others.
The term "cultural lag" refers to the fact that
some cultural elements change more quickly than others.
Which of the following statements is a good example of cultural lag?
gaining the ability to modify genetic patterns in humans before understanding the possible
social consequences of doing so
Cultural change is set in motion in three general ways. What are they?
invention, discovery, and diffusion
The spread of cultural traits from one society to another is called
diffusion.
Ethnocentrism refers to
judging another culture using the standards of your own culture.
The practice of understanding another culture on its own terms and using its own standards is called
cultural relativism.
Which of the following adds to the creation of a global culture?
a. the flow of goods from country to country
b. the flow of information around the world
c. the flow of people from country to country
d. ALL THESE RESPONSES ARE CORRECT
Which theoretical approach states that the stability of U.S. society rests on core values shared by most people?
the structural-functional approach
Cultural universals are elements of culture that
are part of every known culture.
Which theoretical approach is linked to the philosophical doctrine of materialism?
the social-conflict approach