Chapter 6

Cinematography
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Terms in this set (...)

the process of capturing moving images on film or a digital storage device
Cinematography
one uninterrupted run of the camera
shot
one camera position and everything associated with it
setup
the people who are divided into one group of technicians concerned with camera and another concerned with electricity and lighting
Camera Crew
the person who does the actual shooing
Camera operator
member of the camera crew who assists the camera operator
assistant cameraperson (AC)
the board or other device that is used to identify each scene during shooting
Slate
The chief electrocution on a movie production set
gaffer
first assistant electrician to the gaffer on a movie production set
best boy
all around handy person on a movie production set, most often working with the camera crews and electrical crews
grip
celluloid used to record movies
film stock
the dimensions of a film stock and its perforations, and the size and shape of the image frame as seen on the screen
gauge
the rate at which film must move through the camera to correctly capture an image; very fast film requires little light to capture and fix the image, very slow requires a lot of light
film-stock speed
the use of digital technology, in a process similar to hand-tinting, to "paint" colors on movies meant to be seen in black and white
colorization
any aspect ratio wider than 1.33:1, the standard ratio until the early 1950's
widescreen aspect ratio
a piece of lighting equipment, but not really a lighting instrument, because it does not rely on bulbs to produce illumination
reflector board
adjusts the depth of the shadows created by the brighter key light
fill light
the balance between the key and fill lights
lighting ratio
produces the overall gloomy atmosphere that we see in horror films, mysteries, psychological dramas, crime stories and film noir where it contrasts between the light and dark often imply ethical judgments
low-key lighting
produces an image with very little contrast between the darks and the lights, is used extensively in dramas, musicals, comedies, and adventure films
high-key lighting
the primary source of illumination and, thus, is customarily set first
key light
positioned behind and above the subject and is used to create highlights along the edges of the subject as a means of separating it from the background
backlight
the amount and quality of human and physical resources devoted to the image
production values
piece of curved, polished glass or other transparent material
lens
a property of the lens that permits the cinematographer to decide what planes, or areas of the image will be in focus
depth of field
a change of the point of focus from one subject to another
Rack focus
The process by which the cinematographer determines what will appear within the borders of the image during a shot.
Framing
typically photographed at a great distance from the subject, that subject is often too small to be recognized, except through the context we see.
Extreme long shot
We see the character's full body (almost filing the frame but with some area above and below also visible) and some of the surroundings
Long Shot
the LS is used frequently is musicals and comedies, allowing us to see the dexterity of such dancers as Gene Kelly and Donald O' Conner in Stanley Donen
Full-body shot
it is used to photograph one or more characters, usually from the knees up, as well as some of the background
Medium Long shot
somewhere in between the long shot and the close-up, shows a character usually from the waist up, or her full figure if she is seated
Medium shot
shows a character from the middle of the chest to the top of the head
Medium close-up
when the camera is shooting from very near to the subject and shows the full head sometimes including the shoulders, it can also be used to show a hand, eye, or mouth
Close-up
which is a very close shot of some detail
Extreme close-up
the form of a grid pattern that, when superimposed on the image, divides it into horizontal thirds representing the foreground, middle ground, and background planes and into further elements
The rule of thirds
the level height of the camera in relation to the subject being photographed
shooting angle
made from the observer's eye level and usually implies that the camera's attitude toward the subject being photographed is neutral
eye-level shot
made with the camera above the action and typically implies the observer's sense of superiority to the subject being photographed
high-angle shot
made with the camera below the action and typically places the observer in the position of feeling helpless in the presence of an obviously superior force.
Low-angle shot
the camera is tilted from its normal horizontal and vertical position so that it is no longer straight, giving the viewer the impression that the world in the frame is out of balance.
dutch-angle shot
an extreme type of point-of-view shot, is taken from an aircraft or very high crane and implies the observer's omniscience
aerial-view shot
the size and placement of a particular object or a part of a scene in relation to the rest
scale
is the horizontal movement of a camera mounted on the gyroscopic head of a stationary tripod
pan shot
is the vertical movement of a camera mounted on the gyroscopic head of a stationary tripod
tilt shot
is a shot taken by a camera fixed to a wheeled support, generally known as a dolly.
dolly shot
the subject grows in the frame, gaining significance not only through being bigger in the frame, but also through those moments in which we actually see it growing bigger
dolly in
often used for slow disclosure, which occurs when an edited succession of images leads from A to B to C as they gradually reveal the elements of scene
dolly out
type of dolly shot that moves smoothly with the action when the camera is mounted on a wheeled vehicle that runs on a set of tracks
tracking shot
does not move through space, its depiction of spatial relationships between the camera and its subjects does not change
zoom-in
a shot made from a camera mounted on an elevating arm that, in turn, is mounted on a vehicle capable of moving by its own power
crane shot
dyeing the film base before filming
tinting
dyeing after the film was shot
toning
which of the following is NOT one of the four properties of lighting for film?

A) source
B) Style
C) Tone
D) Direction
E) Quality
C
Which of the following lenses would you use if you wanted everything to be in focus in a large depth of field?

A) short lens
B) Normal lens
C) long lens
D) zoom lens
A
Which is the term we use to describe the process of changing focus within a shot from two planes of depth?

A) rack focus
B) pull focus
C) shift focus
D) All of these
D
Ground- breaking cinematographer who said "fit the photography to the story" and was DP on Citizen Kane?

A) Tim Burton
B) Gregg Toland
C) D.W. Griffith
D) richard Barasam
B
The standard for color process today is

A) additive
B) Tinting
C) Subtractive
D) Toning
A
A tracking shot follows a subject by putting a camera on

A) crane
B) Steady cam
C) Metal Tracks
D) boom arm
C
The distance in front of camera in which subjects are in focus is called the

A) focal length
B) deep focus photography
C) zoom
D) depth of field
D
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