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41 terms

Chapter 17 managing information

Moore's Law
is the prediction that every 18 month, the cost of computing will drop by 50 percent as computer-processing power doubles.
raw data
facts and figures
useful data that can influence people's choices and behavior.
first mover advantage
the strategic advantage that companies earn by being the first to use new information technology to substantially lower costs or to make a product or service different from that of competitors.
acuistion cost
the cost of obtaining data that you don't hve
processing costs
the cost of turning raw data into usable information
storage cost
the cost of physically or electronically archiving information for later use and retrieval.
retrieval cost
the cost of accessing already-stored and processed information
communication cost
the cost of transmitting information form one place to another.
bar code
a visual pattern that represents numerical data by varying the thickness and pattern of vertical bars
radio frequency identification (RFID) tags
tags containing minuscule microchips that transmit information via radio waves an can be used to track the number and location of the objects into which the tags have been inserted
electronic scanner
an electronic device that converts printed text and pictures into digital images
optical character recognition
the ability of software to convert digitized documents into ASCII text (American Standard Code for information Interchange) that can be searched, read and edited by word processing and other kinds of software.
processing information
transforming raw data into meaningful information.
data mining
the process of dicovering unknown patterns and relationships in large amounts of data.
data wharehouse
stores huge amounts of data that hve been prepaired for data mining analysis by being cleaned of errors and redundancy
supervised data mining
the process when the user tells the data mining software to look and test for specific patterns and relationships in a data set.
unsupervised data mining
the process when the user simply tells the data mining software to uncover whatever patterns and relationships it can find in a data set.
association or affinity patterns
when two or more database elements tend to occur together in a significant way
sequence patterns
when two or more database elements occur together in a significant pattern, but one of the elements precedes the other.
predictive patterns
patterns that help identify database elements that are different.
data clusters
when three or more database elements occur together (ie a cluster) in a dignificant way.
protecting information
the process of ensuring that data are reliably and consistently retrivable in a usable format for authorized users, but no one else.
making sure potential users are who they claim to be
granting authenticated users approved access to data, softwar, and systems.
two-fator authentication
authentication based on what users know, such as password and what they have in their possession, such as a secure ID card or key.
identifying users by unique, measurable body features, such as fingerprint recognition or iris scanning
a protective hardware or software device that sits vetween the computers in an internal organizaitonal network and outside networks, such as the internet.
a program or piece of code that, without your knowledge, attaches itself to other programs on your computer and can trigger anything from a harmless flashing message to the reforming of your hard drive to a systemwide network shutdown.
data encryption
the transformation of data into complex, scrambled digital codes that can be unencrypted only by authorized users who possess unique decryption keys
virtual private network (VPN)
software that securely encrypts data sent by employess outside the company network, decrypts the data when they arrice within the compnay computer network, and does the same when data are sent back to employees outside the network
secure sockets layer (SSL) encryption
internet browser based encryption that provides secure off site web access to some data and programs
executive information system
a data processing system that uses internal and external data sources to provide the information needed to monitor and analyze organizational performance
private company networks that allow employees to easily access, share, and publish information using internet software.
corporate protal
a hybrid of executive information systems and intranets that allows managers and employees to use a web browser to gain access to customized compnay information and to complete specialized transacitons.
electronic data interchange (EDI)
when two companies convert their purchase and ordering information to a standardized format to enable the direct electronic transmission of theat infromation form one company's computer system to the other company's computer system.
web services
using standardized protocols to describe data from one company in such a way that those data can automatically be read, unerstood, transcribed, and processed by different computer systems in another company
networks that allow companies to exchanges information and conduct transactions with outsiders by providing them direct, web based access to authorized parts of a company's intranet or infromation system.
the understanding that one gains from information
dexision support system (DSS)
an information system that hlps managers understand specific kinds of problems and potentail solutions an analyze the impact of different decision options using "what if:" scenarios
expert system
an information system that contains the specialized knowledge and decision rules used by experts and experienced dexision makers so that nonexperts can draw on this knowledge base to make decisions.