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Suppose we look at two distant gallaxies, G1 is twice as far away as G2
We are seeing G1as it looked at an earlier time in history of the universe than G2
How does Earth's varying distance from the Sun affect our seasons?
It doesn't; Earth's orbital distance plays no significant role in the seasons
The term observable universe refers to
that portion of the universe that we can see in principle. given the current age of the universe
Which of the following statements about the celestial sphere is NOT true?
The celestial sphere is another name for our universe.
"Stars that are visible in the local sky on any clear night of the year, at any time of the night, are called"
What conditions are required for a solar eclipse?
"The phase of the Moon must be new, and the nodes of the Moon's orbit must be nearly aligned with Earth and the Sun."
Which of the following statements about the Moon is true?
The Moon's distance from Earth varies during its orbit.
How did the Ptolemaic model explain the apparent retrograde motion of the planets?
The planets moved along small circles that moved on larger circles around the Earth.
T or F Copernicus's model of the solar system gave much better predictions than the model of Ptolemy
T/F The heliocentric model of the universe holds that Earth is at the center and everything else moves around it.
T/F Retrograde m9tion is the apparent 'backward" (westward) motion of a planet relative to the stars.
" He developed a system for predicting planetary positions that remained in use for some 1,500 years."
Kepler deduced his laws of planetary motion once Newton had published his universal law of gravitation.
Kepler's discoveries regarding the orbital motion of the planets were based mainly on observations made by Copernicus.
"The fact that Voyager 10 continues to speed out of the solar system, even though its rockets have no fuel, is an example of"
Newton's first law of motion.
"How are wavelength, frequency, and energy related for photons of light?"
Longer wavelength means lower frequency and lower energy.
Which of the following statements correctly describes the law of conservation of energy?
The total quantity of energy in the universe never changes
The mass of Jupiter can be calculated by
measuring the orbital period and distance of one of Jupiter's moons.
How does the Space Shuttle take off?
"Hot gas shoots out from the rocket and, by conservation of momentum, the shuttle moves in the opposite direction."
which of the following scenarios involves energy that we would typically ca1culate with Einstein's formula E = mc2?
A small amount of the hydrogen in of a nuclear bomb becomes energy as fusion converts the hydrogen to helium
"Kepler's third law, p2 = a3, means that "
All of the above are correct. all orbits with the same semimajor axis have the same period
Suppose you kick a soccer ball straight up to a height of 10 meters. Which of the following is true about the gravitational potential energy of the ball during its flight?
The ball's gravitational potential energy is greatest at the instant when the ball is at its highest point.
What would happen if the Space Shuttle were launched with a speed greater than Earth's Escape velocity?
It would travel away from Earth into the solar system.
The amount of gravitational potential energy released as an object falls depends on
the distance it falls.
"Compared to its angular momentum when it is farthest from the Sun, Earth's angular momentum when it is nearest to the Sun is"
"Kepler's second law, which states that as a planet moves around its orbit it sweeps out equal areas in equal times, means that"
a planet travels faster when it is nearer to the Sun and slower when it is farther from the Sun
Which of the following represents a case in which you are not accelerating?
Driving in a straight line at 60 miles per hour
"The force of gravity is an inverse square law. This means that, if you double the distance between two large masses, the gravitational force between them"
weakens by a factor of 4
One of the "nails in the coffin" for the Earth-centered universe was
Galileo's observations of the moons of Jupiter
"Based on our current theory of Earth's formation, the water we drink comes from"
comets that impacted Earth.
Why did the solar nebula flatten into a disk?
"It flattened as a natural consequence of collisions between particles in the nebula, changing random motions into more orderly ones"
Why did the solar nebula heat up as it collapsed?
"As the cloud shrank, its gravitational potential energy was converted to thermal energy."
Which of the following is not a characteristic of the outer planets?
" They have very few, if any, moons."
Which of the following is not a characteristic of the inner planets?
They all have substantial atmospheres.
" Which planet has the highest average surface temperature, and why?"
"Venus, because of its dense carbon dioxide atmosphere"
"According to our present theory of solar system formation, why were solid planetesimals able to grow larger in the outer solar system than in the inner solar system?"
"Because only metal and rock could condense in the inner solar system, while ice also condensed in the outer solar system."
"According to our theory of solar system formation, which law best explains why the solar nebula spun faster as it shrank in size?"
The law of conservation of angular momentum
"T/F Within the frost line, planetesimals were composed entirely of rock and outside the frost line planetesimals were composed entirely of ice."
T/F The more massive planets in the solar system tend to be less dense than the lower mass planets.
What do we mean by the frost line when we discuss the formation of planets in the solar nebula?
"It is a circle at a particular distance from the Sun, beyond which the temperature was low enough for ices to condense"
"According to our theory of solar system formation, what three major changes occurred in the solar nebula as it shrank in size?"
"It got hotter, its rate of rotation increased, and it flattened into a disk"
Which of the following statements about comets and asteroids is true?
Comets are balls of ice and dust.
What is a meteorite?
a fragment of an asteroid from the solar system that has fallen to Earth's surface
"When a comet passes near the Sun, part of it takes on the appearance of a large, bright ball from which the tail extends. This part is called"
"From laboratory measurements, we know that a particular spectral line formed by hydrogen appears at a wavelength of 121.6 nanometers (nm). The spectrum of a particular star shows the same hydrogen line appearing at a wavelength of 121.8 nm. What can we conclude?"
The star is moving away from us
"According to the laws of thermal radiation, hotter objects emit photons with"
a shorter average wavelength
" Suppose that Star X and Star Y both have redshifts, but Star X has a larger redshift than Star Y. What can you conclude?"
Star X is moving away from us faster than Star Y
Studying a spectrum from a star can tell us a lot. All of the following statements are true except one. Which statement is not true?
The total amount of light in the spectrum tells us the star's radius
Which of the following best describes what we mean by the Universe
The Sum total of all matter and energy
A television ad claiming that a product is light years ahead of its time does not make sense becasue
it uses light-years to talk about time, but a light year is a unit of distance
Why doesn't a total lunar eclipse occur every month
Sometimes the moon is above or below the Earth's shadow during a full moon
You observe a full moon rising at sunset. What will you see at midnight.
A full moon high in the sky
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