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89 terms

Final Exam

All Test Questions
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Suppose we look at two distant gallaxies, G1 is twice as far away as G2
We are seeing G1as it looked at an earlier time in history of the universe than G2
Our Solar System Consist of
Sun and all the objects that orbit it.
How does Earth's varying distance from the Sun affect our seasons?
It doesn't; Earth's orbital distance plays no significant role in the seasons
The term observable universe refers to
that portion of the universe that we can see in principle. given the current age of the universe
An astronomical unit (AU) is
the average distance between Earth and the Sun
What is the ecliptic plane?
The plane of Earth's orbit around the Sun
Which of the following is largest?
size of a typical galaxv
Which of the following statements about the celestial sphere is NOT true?
The celestial sphere is another name for our universe.
" In order to see a total solar eclipse from Earth, one must be"
)in the umbra
" if we have a new moon today, when we will have the next full moon?"
In about 2 weeks
"Stars that are visible in the local sky on any clear night of the year, at any time of the night, are called"
circumpolar
The point directly over your head is called
the zenith
What conditions are required for a solar eclipse?
"The phase of the Moon must be new, and the nodes of the Moon's orbit must be nearly aligned with Earth and the Sun."
Which of the following statements about the Moon is true?
The Moon's distance from Earth varies during its orbit.
How did the Ptolemaic model explain the apparent retrograde motion of the planets?
The planets moved along small circles that moved on larger circles around the Earth.
T or F Copernicus's model of the solar system gave much better predictions than the model of Ptolemy
False
T/F It is possible to see the third—quarter moon near the western horizon at sunrise.
False
T/F The heliocentric model of the universe holds that Earth is at the center and everything else moves around it.
False
T/F Retrograde m9tion is the apparent 'backward" (westward) motion of a planet relative to the stars.
False
When did Copernicus live?
About 500 years ago
" He developed a system for predicting planetary positions that remained in use for some 1,500 years."
Ptolemy
You are currently emitting electromagnetic waves.
TRUE
"Grass is green because it absorbs green light, reflecting all other colors."
False
"X rays, because they have more energy, travel through space faster than visible light."
False
Speed and velocity are the same thing.
False
"The shorter the wavelength of light, the higher its frequency."
TRUE
Kepler deduced his laws of planetary motion once Newton had published his universal law of gravitation.
False
Kepler's discoveries regarding the orbital motion of the planets were based mainly on observations made by Copernicus.
False
Galileo's observations of the sky were made with the naked eye
False
"Jf your mass is 60 kg on Earth, what would your mass be on the Moon?"
60 kg
"The fact that Voyager 10 continues to speed out of the solar system, even though its rockets have no fuel, is an example of"
Newton's first law of motion.
"How are wavelength, frequency, and energy related for photons of light?"
Longer wavelength means lower frequency and lower energy.
The wavelength of a wave is
the distance between two adjacent peaks of the wave.
Which of the following statements correctly describes the law of conservation of energy?
The total quantity of energy in the universe never changes
The mass of Jupiter can be calculated by
measuring the orbital period and distance of one of Jupiter's moons.
How does the Space Shuttle take off?
"Hot gas shoots out from the rocket and, by conservation of momentum, the shuttle moves in the opposite direction."
which of the following scenarios involves energy that we would typically ca1culate with Einstein's formula E = mc2?
A small amount of the hydrogen in of a nuclear bomb becomes energy as fusion converts the hydrogen to helium
"Kepler's third law, p2 = a3, means that "
All of the above are correct. all orbits with the same semimajor axis have the same period
Suppose you kick a soccer ball straight up to a height of 10 meters. Which of the following is true about the gravitational potential energy of the ball during its flight?
The ball's gravitational potential energy is greatest at the instant when the ball is at its highest point.
The pot along a planet's orbit where it is closest to the S is called the orbit'
perihelion
What would happen if the Space Shuttle were launched with a speed greater than Earth's Escape velocity?
It would travel away from Earth into the solar system.
We can see each other in the classroom right now because we
reflect visible light.
He discovered that the orbits of planets are ellipses.
Kepler
The amount of gravitational potential energy released as an object falls depends on
the distance it falls.
"Compared to its angular momentum when it is farthest from the Sun, Earth's angular momentum when it is nearest to the Sun is"
the same
"Kepler's second law, which states that as a planet moves around its orbit it sweeps out equal areas in equal times, means that"
a planet travels faster when it is nearer to the Sun and slower when it is farther from the Sun
Which of the following represents a case in which you are not accelerating?
Driving in a straight line at 60 miles per hour
Radio waves are
a form of light
Which of the following is not a way light and matter interact?
evaporation
"The force of gravity is an inverse square law. This means that, if you double the distance between two large masses, the gravitational force between them"
weakens by a factor of 4
One of the "nails in the coffin" for the Earth-centered universe was
Galileo's observations of the moons of Jupiter
"Based on our current theory of Earth's formation, the water we drink comes from"
comets that impacted Earth.
Why did the solar nebula flatten into a disk?
"It flattened as a natural consequence of collisions between particles in the nebula, changing random motions into more orderly ones"
Why did the solar nebula heat up as it collapsed?
"As the cloud shrank, its gravitational potential energy was converted to thermal energy."
Which of the following is furthest from the Sun?
A comet in the Oort Cloud
Where are most of the known asteroids found?
between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter
What are the main constituents of the jovian planets?
hydrogen and helium
Which of the following is not a characteristic of the outer planets?
" They have very few, if any, moons."
Which of the following is not a characteristic of the inner planets?
They all have substantial atmospheres.
Which planet has a ring system?
All of the above Uranus
" Which planet has the highest average surface temperature, and why?"
"Venus, because of its dense carbon dioxide atmosphere"
"According to our present theory of solar system formation, why were solid planetesimals able to grow larger in the outer solar system than in the inner solar system?"
"Because only metal and rock could condense in the inner solar system, while ice also condensed in the outer solar system."
"According to our theory of solar system formation, which law best explains why the solar nebula spun faster as it shrank in size?"
The law of conservation of angular momentum
"T/F Within the frost line, planetesimals were composed entirely of rock and outside the frost line planetesimals were composed entirely of ice."
False
T/F All the planets in the solar system rotate in the same direction as they orbit the Sun
False
T/F The more massive planets in the solar system tend to be less dense than the lower mass planets.
True
T/F All the planets in the solar system have at least one moon
False
T/F The jovian planets have no solid surface.
True
What do we mean by the frost line when we discuss the formation of planets in the solar nebula?
"It is a circle at a particular distance from the Sun, beyond which the temperature was low enough for ices to condense"
"According to our theory of solar system formation, what three major changes occurred in the solar nebula as it shrank in size?"
"It got hotter, its rate of rotation increased, and it flattened into a disk"
The terrestrial planets in our solar system are
"Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars."
Which of the following statements about comets and asteroids is true?
Comets are balls of ice and dust.
A rocky leftover planetesal orbit the Sun is
an asteroid.
What is a meteorite?
a fragment of an asteroid from the solar system that has fallen to Earth's surface
What part of a comet always points most directly away from the Sun?
the plasma tail
T/F A spacecraft has captured and brought material to Earth from a comet
True
T/F All meteorites collected on Earth come from asteroids or comets.
False
"When a comet passes near the Sun, part of it takes on the appearance of a large, bright ball from which the tail extends. This part is called"
the coma
"From laboratory measurements, we know that a particular spectral line formed by hydrogen appears at a wavelength of 121.6 nanometers (nm). The spectrum of a particular star shows the same hydrogen line appearing at a wavelength of 121.8 nm. What can we conclude?"
The star is moving away from us
T/F Any object moving relative to Earth will have a Doppler shift when viewed from Earth.
False
"According to the laws of thermal radiation, hotter objects emit photons with"
a shorter average wavelength
" Suppose that Star X and Star Y both have redshifts, but Star X has a larger redshift than Star Y. What can you conclude?"
Star X is moving away from us faster than Star Y
Studying a spectrum from a star can tell us a lot. All of the following statements are true except one. Which statement is not true?
The total amount of light in the spectrum tells us the star's radius
Which of the following best describes what we mean by the Universe
The Sum total of all matter and energy
Based on obsevations of the universeal expansion, the age of the universe is about
14 Billion Years
A television ad claiming that a product is light years ahead of its time does not make sense becasue
it uses light-years to talk about time, but a light year is a unit of distance
Why doesn't a total lunar eclipse occur every month
Sometimes the moon is above or below the Earth's shadow during a full moon
You observe a full moon rising at sunset. What will you see at midnight.
A full moon high in the sky
Suppose you live in the United States and you see a crescent moon in your evening sky tonight, What will a Friends see in S. America tonight
Your Friend will also see a crescent moon