The Nervous System
sensory input, integration, motor output
What are the general functions of the Nervous system? (3)
this general function of the NS monitors internal and external environment.
this general function of the NS interprets incoming information
this general function of the NS responds to effectors.
these things respond. Examples include organs, muscles, and glands.
CNS and PNS
what are the two divisions of the NS?
this division of the NS includes the brain and the spinal cord
this division of the NS functions in receiving, integrating, and responding to sensory information
this division of the NS includes all nerve tissue outside of the CNS
sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent)
what are the two divisions of the PNS
this division of the PNS functions in sending sensory information into the CNS from receptors in organs
this division of the PNS carries motor commands from the CNS to effectors in muscles, organs, and glands.
what are the two divisions of the efferent NS
this division of the efferent NS controls skeletal muscles.
this division of efferent NS is voluntary or involuntary
this division of the efferent NS controls smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and gland secretions.
this division of the efferent NS is involuntary.
what are the two divisions of the autonomic NS
this division of the autonomic NS increases organ activity during stress, emergency, or fight or flight
this division of the autonomic NS uses energy
this division of the autonomic NS decreases organ activity to calm and reduce stress
this division of the autonomic NS conserves energy and restores energy
what are the functional units of communication in the NS?
this functional unit of the NS carries information as electrical impulses from one body part to another.
what is the main part of the neuron?
what fills the cell body?
what does the cell body contain?
what part of the neuron is the production site for chemical messengers, which relay information from neuron to neuron?
what are branched processes that extend from the cell body and terminate at the dendrite spines?
what part of the neuron recieves impulses from neurons in the CNS and receptors in the PNS
what are long fiber extensions that carry impulses away from the cell body?
this is the part of the axon where it attaches a cell body to an axon
what part of the axon is enclosed by the axolemma?
axons branch into collaterals which branch into this
this is where telodendria terminate
this is a part of the neuron where a neuron communicates with another cell.
this is the part of the synapse where the sending of the message is located
this is the part of the synapse where cells receive the message
this is the part of the synapse which is a small space separating the pre and post synaptic cell
this part of synapse releases/recieves neurotransmitters
this part of synapse contains neurotransmitters
this neurotransmitter is the most common neurotransmitter.
it is found in the brain, spinal cord, and neuromuscular junction
this neurotransmitter regulates muscle movement by inhibiting antagonist muscles. it is found in motor areas of the brain.
this neurotransmitter affects attention levels and emotional states.
structural and functional
what are the two types of classifications of neurons
anaxonic bipolar unipolar multipolar
what are the 4 types of structural classifications of neurons
this types of structural neurons are small and star shaped (dendrites and axons appear the same)
this types of structural neurons short cells with 2 fibers
(1 branched dendrite and 1 branched axon)
this types of structural neurons are found in special sense organs of sight, smell, and sound.
this types of structural neurons functions in relaying info from receptors to other neurons
this types of structural neurons has dendrites and axons that combine to for 1 long fiber
this types of structural neurons are found as sensory neurons in the PNS
this types of structural neurons contains 2+ dendrites and 1 axon
this types of structural neurons is most common in CNS and can be found as motor neurons in PNS>
sensory, motor, interneurons
what are the 3 types of functional classifications of neurons
this type of functional classification of neurons contains unipolar neurons that deliver information from sensory receptors to CNS>
what are the two types of sensory (afferent) neurons
this types of sensory neuron delivers information about the external environment to the CNS for processing
this type of sensory neuron delivers info about about internal enviroment
this functional classification of neurons contains multipolar neurons. it carries responses from the CNS to the PNS effectors
what are the two types of motor neurons
this type of motor neuron sends a command to skeletal muscles
this type of motor neuron sends commands to smooth and cardiac muscles
these types of structural neurons are made up of multipolar neurons in the CNS. they integrate incoming sensory information and coordinate outgoing motor response.
these are cells that support neurons both structurally and functionally.
ependymal astrocytes oligodendrocytes microglia
what are the cells of the neuroglia
these cells of the CNS neuroglia are specialized epithelial cells that line the free surface of the spinal cord and brain.
these cells of the CNS neuroglia secrete cerebrospinal fluidsand acts as a shock absorber
this fluid circulates around the brain and the spinal cord and circulates wastes and nutrients
these cells of the CNS neuroglia: blood brain barrier, permeability, structure and framework and stabilization
these cells of the CNS neuroglia are incharge of phagocytes and search out and engulf pathogens
these cells of the CNS neuroglia bind together groups of axons and help to speed up nerves impulses. they create myelin
layer of cell membrane that forms a fatty coating of insulation
this prevents short circuits and increases the speed of the impulse
what are the neuroglia of the PNS?
when myelinated axons appear white they are called
these cells of the PNS neuroglia support and repairare similar to astrocytes
these cells of the PNS are similar to oligodendrocytes
this is an auto-immune disease where micrglia cells attack oligodendrocytes which causes disruption in nerve impulses