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80 terms

The Nervous System

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sensory input, integration, motor output
What are the general functions of the Nervous system? (3)
Sensory Input
this general function of the NS monitors internal and external environment.
integration
this general function of the NS interprets incoming information
motor output
this general function of the NS responds to effectors.
effectors
these things respond. Examples include organs, muscles, and glands.
CNS and PNS
what are the two divisions of the NS?
CNS
this division of the NS includes the brain and the spinal cord
CNS
this division of the NS functions in receiving, integrating, and responding to sensory information
PNS
this division of the NS includes all nerve tissue outside of the CNS
sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent)
what are the two divisions of the PNS
sensory (afferent)
this division of the PNS functions in sending sensory information into the CNS from receptors in organs
motor (efferent)
this division of the PNS carries motor commands from the CNS to effectors in muscles, organs, and glands.
somatic autonomic
what are the two divisions of the efferent NS
SNS
this division of the efferent NS controls skeletal muscles.
SNS
this division of efferent NS is voluntary or involuntary
ANS
this division of the efferent NS controls smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and gland secretions.
ANS
this division of the efferent NS is involuntary.
sympathetic parasympatheic
what are the two divisions of the autonomic NS
sympathetic
this division of the autonomic NS increases organ activity during stress, emergency, or fight or flight
sympathetic
this division of the autonomic NS uses energy
parasympathetic
this division of the autonomic NS decreases organ activity to calm and reduce stress
parasympathetic
this division of the autonomic NS conserves energy and restores energy
Neurons
what are the functional units of communication in the NS?
Neurons
this functional unit of the NS carries information as electrical impulses from one body part to another.
Cell body
what is the main part of the neuron?
perikaryon
what fills the cell body?
organelles
what does the cell body contain?
cell body
what part of the neuron is the production site for chemical messengers, which relay information from neuron to neuron?
neurotransmitters
chemical messengers
dendrites
what are branched processes that extend from the cell body and terminate at the dendrite spines?
dendrites
what part of the neuron recieves impulses from neurons in the CNS and receptors in the PNS
axon
what are long fiber extensions that carry impulses away from the cell body?
axon hillock
this is the part of the axon where it attaches a cell body to an axon
axoplasm
what part of the axon is enclosed by the axolemma?
telodendria
axons branch into collaterals which branch into this
synaptic terminal
this is where telodendria terminate
synapse
this is a part of the neuron where a neuron communicates with another cell.
presynaptic cell
this is the part of the synapse where the sending of the message is located
postsynaptic cell
this is the part of the synapse where cells receive the message
synaptic cleft
this is the part of the synapse which is a small space separating the pre and post synaptic cell
synaptic membranes
this part of synapse releases/recieves neurotransmitters
synaptic vesicles
this part of synapse contains neurotransmitters
acetylcholine
this neurotransmitter is the most common neurotransmitter.
it is found in the brain, spinal cord, and neuromuscular junction
dopamine
this neurotransmitter regulates muscle movement by inhibiting antagonist muscles. it is found in motor areas of the brain.
serotonin
this neurotransmitter affects attention levels and emotional states.
structural and functional
what are the two types of classifications of neurons
anaxonic bipolar unipolar multipolar
what are the 4 types of structural classifications of neurons
anaxonic
this types of structural neurons are small and star shaped (dendrites and axons appear the same)
bipolar
this types of structural neurons short cells with 2 fibers
(1 branched dendrite and 1 branched axon)
bipolar
this types of structural neurons are found in special sense organs of sight, smell, and sound.
bipolar
this types of structural neurons functions in relaying info from receptors to other neurons
unipolar
this types of structural neurons has dendrites and axons that combine to for 1 long fiber
unipolar
this types of structural neurons are found as sensory neurons in the PNS
multipolar
this types of structural neurons contains 2+ dendrites and 1 axon
multipolar
this types of structural neurons is most common in CNS and can be found as motor neurons in PNS>
sensory, motor, interneurons
what are the 3 types of functional classifications of neurons
sensory (afferent)
this type of functional classification of neurons contains unipolar neurons that deliver information from sensory receptors to CNS>
somatic visceral
what are the two types of sensory (afferent) neurons
somatic
this types of sensory neuron delivers information about the external environment to the CNS for processing
visceral
this type of sensory neuron delivers info about about internal enviroment
motor (efferent)
this functional classification of neurons contains multipolar neurons. it carries responses from the CNS to the PNS effectors
somatic viseral
what are the two types of motor neurons
somatic
this type of motor neuron sends a command to skeletal muscles
viseral
this type of motor neuron sends commands to smooth and cardiac muscles
interneurons
these types of structural neurons are made up of multipolar neurons in the CNS. they integrate incoming sensory information and coordinate outgoing motor response.
neuroglina
these are cells that support neurons both structurally and functionally.
ependymal astrocytes oligodendrocytes microglia
what are the cells of the neuroglia
ependymal
these cells of the CNS neuroglia are specialized epithelial cells that line the free surface of the spinal cord and brain.
ependymal
these cells of the CNS neuroglia secrete cerebrospinal fluidsand acts as a shock absorber
cerebrospinal fluid
this fluid circulates around the brain and the spinal cord and circulates wastes and nutrients
astrocytes
these cells of the CNS neuroglia: blood brain barrier, permeability, structure and framework and stabilization
microglia
these cells of the CNS neuroglia are incharge of phagocytes and search out and engulf pathogens
oligodendrocytes
these cells of the CNS neuroglia bind together groups of axons and help to speed up nerves impulses. they create myelin
myelin
layer of cell membrane that forms a fatty coating of insulation
myelin sheath
this prevents short circuits and increases the speed of the impulse
satellite schwann
what are the neuroglia of the PNS?
white matter
when myelinated axons appear white they are called
satellite
these cells of the PNS neuroglia support and repairare similar to astrocytes
schwann
these cells of the PNS are similar to oligodendrocytes
multiple sclerosis
this is an auto-immune disease where micrglia cells attack oligodendrocytes which causes disruption in nerve impulses