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list of major food growing regions in canada
Ontario, Sakatchewan, Southern Alberta, peace river block
list of major foods grown in canada
wheat, corn, oats, barley, rhye, soy beans, fruit trees, canola, potatoes, sugar beats
list of naturally occuring foods in canada
low bush blueberries, rasberries, strawberries, saskatoons, irish moss, maple syrup, mushrooms, fiddleheads, wild rice, cranberries
difference between ecosystems and agroecosystems
natural ecosystem's energy comes from sun, agroecosystem's energy comes from fossil fuel, human controls agroecosystems
irrigation
used in southern Alberta due to lack of ground water and high rates of evaporation, use channels that are different from rivers in that channels use artificial dams and diversions which damage land
swather
harvesting tool towed behind tractor which cuts stems of plants with shorter growing seasons
combine
harvesting machine used by farmers to cut lots of plants in short periods of time, genetic selector as plants that don't reach appropriate height are not cut
agricultural pests
wheat stem fly, grasshoppers, cutworms, flea beetles, bertha armyworm, lice, black flies
approved gmos in canada
corn, canola, soybeans, squash, flax
primary air pollutants
caused by incomplete burning of fossil fuels and natural emissions such as forest fires and volcanos
secondary air pollutants
smog
smoking hills
found in NWT, bituminous shale spontaneously ignited causing low levels of SO2 emissions and sulphuric acid into the atmosphere
human emissions
automobiles, industry, agriculture
indoor pollutants
tobacco smoke, asbetos, carbon monoxide, radon
canadas biggest source of acid despositon
industry
USAs biggest source of acid desposition
electric utilities
effects of acid desposition
loss of biodiversity in aquatic ecosystems, reduces rate of tree growth and death of trees, death of fish and amphibian eggs, metals leach into water systems, human health problems, corrosion
effects of global warming
biota can't adapt, rise in sea level, increase in extreme weather events, desertification, increase in forest fires, melting of permafrost, health risks, spread of beetles carrying dutch elm disease
evidence of global warming
warming of arctic, boreal fauna appearinga bove treeline, period ice shortening, satelite images showing you can sale to north pole from europe, Ayles ice shelf breaking from ellesmere island, mountain pine beetle appearing more often, coral bleaching, baltimore oriol moving north, fruit being able to grow outside of okenagan valley
how pollutants get to arctic
weather, ocean and wind currents, grasshopper effects, imported pollutants, birds
archangel ancient tree archive
non profit orginiztion which locates and propogates worlds most iconic trees, creates living libraries of genetics to clone trees in future for reforestation
importance of trees
co2 sinks, regulate water system, prevent erosion, alleviate air pressure, wildlife habitats, recreation, water reservoirs and purifiers, scientific info
advantages of being an evergreen tree
leaves last several years reducing nutrient demand, carry on photosynthesis whenever warm enough, survive in poor soils and cold temperatures
8 forest regions of canada
boreal, subalpine, montane, costal rainforest, columbia, deciduous, great lakes st. lawrence, acadian
importance of boreal
remaining spruce fir, tamarack, huge carbon sink, boreal wetlands filter water, large natural web of plants, animals, birds, insects
mitsubishi plant in BC
provides few jobs, cuts lare amount of trees, sends all products to Taiwan
mitsubishi mill
on athabaska river, consumes10-20 thousand ha of forest per year, gives little money back to Canada, chlorine and bleach dumped in river
Brazil of the north
deforestation economy, used to only occur in tropics
stumpage fees
minimum charge per cubic meter of tree to ensure revenue
problems of clear cutting
removes cover, degrades soil, degrades aquatic ecosystems, destroys forest ecosystem and diversity
forest pests
mountain pine beetle, spruce budworm, tent caterpillar, bark beetle, gypsy moth, asian long horned beetle
terrestrial ecosystems
terrestrials productivity carried out by large plants, large primary producers consumers, k, p, n limit productivity, high temperatures, short food chains, locomotion not impeeded
aquatic ecosytems
productivity carried out by phytoplankton, primary consumers are small, long food chains, locomotion impeeded, P is limiting factor
similarities between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems
plant producers, animal consumers, microorganism decomposers, limited by light energy, nutrients cycle
why is water special?
low thermal inertia, boiling/freezing points can be altered, strong surface tension, adhesion, dissolve other substances
lakes
sizable bodies of water surrounded by land with low o2, stratification, influenced by wind, fed by springs, rivers and precipitation
rivers and streams
more oxygenated then lakes, organisms adapted to moving water, no stratification, less productive then lakes, receive energy from land
sediment
soil and silt from erosion which clouds water and disrupts photosynthesis
list of invasive aliens in lakes
zebra mussels, sea lamprey, smelt, alewife, giant asian carp, snake heads
critical pollutants in great lakes
DDT, alkylated lead, mirex, mercury, PCBs, toxaphene
5 important minerals in Canada
copper, gold, nickel, iron, zinc
mining operation sequence
exploration, development, extraction, processing, closure, reclamation
mining impacts
wastes, acid mine drainage, wipes out aquatic ecosystem, contaminates or kills plants, dries up lakes and rivers, kills birds who land in tailings, mine sediment enters water, road construction
sediment
reduces o2 levels, kills fish, causes fin rot, cause fish to abandon habitats, lowers fish reproduction, kills fish eggs, reduces sunlight, kills mayflies
damage in sudbury caused by
logging of trees, fumigation, erosion, acid precipitation, deposition of toxic metals
reclamation process
determine level of pollution, alter soil acidity, addition of essential nutrients, bind organic matter to toxic metals, isolate by adding topsoil, plant seeds of tolerant species
limiting factors of reclamation
erosion of soil, summer heat, rocky surfaces, no wind protection, pollutants in soil not eliminated, lack of decomposers, large concentrations of Cu and Ni, lack of seeds, lack of tolerant species
keystone species
prarie dogs, sea otters, beavers, pollinators, decomposers
indicator species
crayfish, coral, peregrine falcons, native plants
flagship species
panda bear