62 terms

AP Human Geography

Unit II. Population & Migration
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Demography
the branch of sociology that studies the characteristics of human populations
Arithmetic density
The total number of people divided by the total land area.
Agricultural density
The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture.
Physiological density
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
Ecumene
The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
Major population clusters
A. East Asia: ¼ of world population
B. South Asia: Bound by the Himalayas to the north
and a desert in Pakistan
C. Europe: Population concentrated in cities
D. North America: Megalopolis
Emerging population clusters
Northeastern United States, Southeastern Canada, West Africa
Clustered in cities, near water.
Sparsely populated areas
Dry lands, wet lands, high lands, cold lands
Distribution of population within clusters
East Asia- China
South Asia- Area along Ganges River
Southeast Asia- Java, Indonesia
Europe- England, Germany, Belgium- Cities
Overpopulation/ carrying capacity
-The number of a people in an area exceeds The capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
-the largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support
Challenges of high populations in certain areas of the world
Health Conditions, disease, malnutrition
Population pyramids
Visual representations of the age and sex composition of a population whereby the percentage of each age group is represented by a horizontal bar the length of which represents its relationship to the total population. The males in each age group are represented to the left of the center line of each horizontal bar. The females in each age group are represented to the right of the center line.
Analysis of various population pyramid shapes
Detroit and Laredo have broader pyramids than Cedar Rapids and Honolulu, indicating higher percentages of young people and higher fertility rates. Unalaska has a high percentage of males b/c it contains an isolated military base.
Dependency ratio
The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compares to the number of people active in the labor force.
Population pyramids at different scales
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Relationship between population distribution and distribution of natural hazards
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Natural hazard/ natural disaster
•A natural hazard is a natural process that may have a negative effect on people (loss of human life or property damage) or the environment.
•A natural disaster is the consequence of a natural hazard which affects human activities.
Role of population increase on health of an ecosystem
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The "J" curve
exponential growth, beginning growth is slow/then population doubles
The demographic equation
((Birth Rate - Death Rate) + Net Migration Rate)/10 = Percent Population Growth Rate
Where in the world experiences high and low Crude Birth Rate (CBR), Crude Death Rate (CDR), and Natural Increase Rate (NIR)
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Doubling time
the time required for a population to double in size
Reasons for rapid population growth due to industrialization and the diffusion of modern medical practices
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Malthus
an English economist who argued that increases in population would outgrow increases in the means of subsistence (1766-1834)
Demographic transition
The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.
LIfe expectancy
The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live.
Epidemiological transition
A societal shift from low life expectancy and predominance of parasitic and infectious diseases to high life expectancy and predominance of chronic and degenerative diseases.
Census
a period count of the population
Validity of the Demographic Transition Model (DTM)
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Whose experience was the Demographic Transition Model (DTM) based on and why?
It is based on an interpretation begun in 1929 by the American demographer Warren Thompson, of the observed changes, or transitions, in birth and death rates in industrialized societies over the past two hundred years or so.
Anti-natalist policies
-Encourage couples to limit the number of children they have
-These policies discourage growth through provision of contraception or abortion or through establishment of specific disincentives, such as steep penalties for couples bearing more children than allowed by the state
-China is famous for its one-child population policy from the '80s in which many drastic measures (e.g. forced sterilization for couples with one child or infanticide of female babies), ensured decreasing population growth
Pro-natalist policies
Encourages people to have more children by providing tax cuts and other financial incentives, encouraged people to have children for their country's cause. Issues (ingrained attitudes, guilt over contributing to population growth, lack of adequate child support, fascist past) New policies (increased state-funded child welfare support, increasing the quality and quantity of childcare opportunities, increase maternity leave, extend opening hours for kindergartens, and introduce tax breaks for families with children, $9,000 bonus to any woman with second child, new Russian holiday).
Zero Population Growth (ZPG)
A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.
Role of economic development
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Migration
the movement of persons from one country or locality to another
Immigration vs. emigration
Immigration - moving into a region or country
emigration - moving out of one region or country
Cultural push & pulls
political instability, slavery
Economic push & pulls
Push: unemployment, low wages, no private land for sale
Pull: job opportunites, high wages, land available, few job opportunities in their home country result in ppl looking to other countries for jobs (i.e. Irish moving to Canada)
*specific jobs found in specific places
Environmental push & pulls
Push: severe or harsh weather and climate, natural disasters, sunbelt migration, flood plains, extreme aridity
Pull: mild climate, seashore, mountains
Recent trends in migration
Most migrants are male adult individuals who seek work. Migrate to USA and Europe
Distance decay
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
Gravity model
A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service.
Waves of immigration to the United States
The first era was the initial settlement of colonies. The second era began in the mid-19th century and culminated in the early 20th century. The 3rd era began in the 1970s and continues today.
European migration since 1970
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Chain migration
migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
Step migration
migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city
Intervening obstacles and opportunities
Discrimination, Distance, Cost
Education, Jobs
Zelinsky's migration transition
Transition to patterns of migrations. Stage 1: Pre-industrial society there is little residential migration and limited movement. Stage 2: Early transitional stage of considerable rural-urban migration and the colonization of new lands, with the associated growth of longer distance migration. Stage 3: Rural-urban migration continues and there is a rapid rise in migration between cities. Stage 4: Rural-urban migration may continue but at a reduced rate; residential migration remains high, but in the form of migration between cities rather than emigration. Some immigration of unskilled workers, and skilled workers may be exchanged between countries as a result of multi-national companies. Stage 5: Advanced societies will have mostly inter or intra urban migration although new technology will reduce the need for migration. Mobility between and within countries may be affected by state legisltaion.
Slave trade (involuntary migration)
European trade agreement with Africa dealing with slaves brought from Africa. Integral part of Triangle Trade between the Americas, Africa, and Europe.
Refugees
People who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion.
Partition of India
This led to the movement of millions of people in South Asia after India got its independence from Britian.
The Soviet experience (internal migration)
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Environmental degradation
Depletion or destruction of a potentially renewable resource such as soil, grassland, forest, or wildlife that is used faster than it is naturally replenished. If such use continues, the resource becomes nonrenewable (on a human time scale) or nonexistent (extinct). See also sustainable yield.
Interregional migration in Europe and the U.S.
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Place perception
the awareness we have, as individuals, of home and distant places and the beliefs we hold about them
Transhumance
The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures.
Guest workers
Workers who migrate to the more developed countries of Northern and Western Europe, usually from Southern of Eastern Europe or from North Africa, in search of higher-paying jobs.
Intaregional migration (rural to urban & urban to rural)
move within one region within a country
Conurbanization
the process that the metropolitan area grows so outward that it merges with other metropolitan areas.
Life course
the changes in expected activities, roles, rights and obligations, and social relationships individuals experience as they move through culturally defined age categories
Human capital
the knowledge and skills that workers acquire through education, training, and experience
Socioeconomic consequences of migration
migrants, especially refugees have tremendous repercussions in the states into which they move
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