37 terms

AP World History Ways of the World Chapter 1

Terms from Ways of the World Chapter 1
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Venus Figurines
Paleolithic carvings of female form, often with exaggerated breasts, buttocks, hips and stomachs, which may have had religious significance.
Paleolithic "settling down"
The process by which some Paleolithic peoples moved toward permanent settlement in the wake of the last Ice Age. Settlement was marked by increasing storage of food and accumulation of goods as well as growing inequalities in society.
"The original affluent society"
Term coined by scholar Marshall Sahlins in 1972 to describe Paleolithic societies which he regarded as affluent not because of having too much, but because they wanted and needed so little.
Megafaunal Extinction
Dying out a number of large animal species, including the mammoth and several species of horses and camels, that occurred around 11,000-10,000 years ago, at the end of the last Ice Age. The extinction may have been caused by excessive hunting or by the changing climate of the area.
Dreamtime
A native Australian Aborigines' belief; Dreamtime is a place beyond time and space in which the past, present, and future exist wholly as one. Tribes-people could enter this alternate universe through dreams or various states of altered consciousness, as well as death, Dreamtime being considered the final destination before reincarnation.
Clovis Culture
The earliest widespread and distinctive culture of N. America; distinctive because they hunted large animals; Mammoth, Bison. named from a particular kind of projectile point (See image)
Austronesian Migrations
The last phase of the great human migration that established a human presence in every habitable region on Earth. These people settled in the Pacific Islands and Madagascar in a series of seaborne migrations that began around 3500 years ago.
Banpo
A Chinese archeological site where the remains of a significant Neolithic village have been found
Bantu Migration
The spread of Bantu-speaking peoples from their homeland in what is now southern Nigeria or Cameroon to most of Africa in a process that started ca. 3000 BCE and continued for several millennia.
Catalhuyuk
A settlement in present day southern Turkey, which existed from approximately 7500 BC to 5700 BC, and flourished around 7000BC. It is the largest and best-preserved Neolithic site found to date.
Chiefdom
A societal grouping governed by a chief who typically relies on generosity, ritual status, or charisma rather than force to win obedience from the people.
Diffusion
The gradual spread of agricultural techniques without extensive population movement.
Fertile Crescent
Region sometimes known as Southwest Asia that includes the modern states of Iraq, Syria, Israel/Palestine, and southern Turkey; the earliest home of agriculture.
Pastoral Society
A human society that relies on domesticated animals rather than plants as the main source of food; lead their animals to seasonal grazing grounds rather than settling permanently in a single location.
"Secondary Products Revolution"
A term used to describe the series of technological changes that began ca. 4000 BCE, as people began to develop new uses for their domesticated animals, exploiting a new source of power.
Teosinte
The wild ancestor of maize.
Ishi
was the last member of the Yahi, a group of the Yana people of the U.S. state of California. Widely acclaimed in his time as the "last wild Indian" in America, Ishi lived most of his life completely outside modern culture. At about 49 years of age, in 1911, he emerged from "the wild" near Oroville, California, leaving his ancestral homeland.
Göbekli Tepe
A ceremonial site (in modern day Turkey) of a hunting and gathering society. This type of structure is normally only associated with agricultural societies
Brotherhood of the Tomol
A prestigious craft guild that monopolized the building and ownership of large ocean-going canoes, or tomols, among the Chumash people.
Chumash Culture
The Paleolithic culture of southern California that survived until the modern era.
Flores Man
A recently discovered hominid species of Indonesia.
"Gathering and Hunting Peoples"
People who live by collecting food rather than producing it.
Great Goddess
A dominant deity of the Paleolithic Era, according to one theory. often based off of nature
Hadza
A people of northern Tanzania, almost the last surviving Paleolithic society.
Paleolithic
"Old Stone Age"; used to describe early Homo Sapiens societies in the period before the development of agriculture
Paleolithic Rock Art
Used to describe the hundreds of Paleolithic paintings discovered in Spain and France and dating to about 20,000 years ago; these paintings usually depict a range of animals, although human figures and abstract designs are also found.
San, or Ju/'hoansi
A Paleolithic people still living on the northern fringe of the Kalahari Desert in southern Africa
"Human Revolution"
The term used to describe the transition of humans from acting out of biological imperative to dependence on learned or invented ways of living(culture).
Ice Age
Any number of cold periods in the earth's history; the last Ice Age was at its peak around 20,000 years ago.
"Insulting the Meat"
A San cultural practice meant to deflate pride that involved negative comments about the meat brought in by the hunter and the expectation that a successful hunter would disparage his own kill.
Jomon Culture
A settled Paleolithic culture of prehistoric Japan, characterized by seaside villages and the creation of some of the world's earliest pottery.
Neanderthals
A European variant of Homo Sapiens that died out about 25,000 years ago.
N/Um
A spiritual potency among the San, that becomes activated during "curing dances" and protects humans from the malevolent forces of gods or ancestral spirits.
"The Original Affluent Society"
The term coined by the scholar Marshall Sahlins in 1972 to describe Paleolithic societies, which he regarded as affluent because they had so much but because they wanted or needed so little
Shaman
A person that is believed to have the ability to act as a bridge between living humans and supernatural forces, often by means of trances including psychoactive drugs.
Trance Dance
A night long ritual in San culture, that was held to activate a human being's inner spiritual potency (n/um) to counteract the evil influences of gods and ancestors. The practice was apparently common to the Khoisan people, of whom the Ju/'hoansi are a surviving remnant.
Cultural Diffusion
the spread of cultural and social activities from, one group to the other