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Contemporary Issues in Nutrition Professor Dority

dietary guidelines for americans

promotes good dietary habits








the amount of x to recommend to the public

estimated average requirement (ear)

amount of nutrient recommended to meet the requirement for a nutrient for half of the people of a specific group


the minimum amount of a nutrient that will prevent the development of deficiency symptoms

observational studies

observing what a person is doing (ex: food diary - having people keep track of what they eat)


may suggest cause and effect, but doesn't prove the problem

epidemiological studies

other name for observational studies

scientific method steps

1. observation and question; 2. hypothesis and prediction; 3. experiment; 4. results and interpretations; 5. theory or new observation/question

scientific method

the way scientists get from asking a question to finding an answer

recommended daily allowance

set to cover most healthy people (97-98%) of a specific age and gender

dietary reference intakes


nutrient density

trying to buy the most nutrients with the least amount of calories - ex: milk vs. orange juice vs. soda

adequacy, balance, calorie control, moderation and variety

diet planning principles (abcs)


making sure you're getting enough nutrients


not going overboard in 1 area

calorie control

maintain healthy weight for you


80, 20 rule


mix up your fruits and vegetables


the physiological need for food


the psychological desire to eat


who sets the serving size for nutrition fact panels


how many different items are required on the nutrition facts panel

social and cultural factors

reasons we make the food choices we do


any condition caused by excess, deficiency or imbalance of calories or nutrients


calorie or nutrient overcomsumption severe enough to cause disease or increased risk of disease


unit used to measure energy


how many calories per gram in carbs


how many calories per gram in proteins


how many calories per gram in fats


how many calories per gram in alcohol

find desirable weight for height; divide by 2.2; multiply by .8

calculating RDA for protein

essential nutrients

must be obtained from food because the body can't make them for itself


how many nutrients are essential

carbs, fat, protein, vitamins, minerals and water

the 6 nutrients

carbs, fat and protein

which 3 nutrients produce energy

vitamins, minerals and water

which 3 nutrients don't produce energy but we need them to help us function

double-blind experiment

both the researcher and subjects don't know who is in the experimental group and who is in the control group; don't know who is getting the treatment/placebo

blind experiment

the subjects don't find out until after the experiment if they were receiving the treatment or the placebo

control group

this group is receiving the placebo pill/not the treatment

experimental group

this group is receiving the treatment


picking people for the experimental and control groups without a bias

experimental studies

changing and measuring the conditions of someone's life/environment (ex: researches are intervening people's lives)

intervention studies

experimental studies are also known as

tolerable upper intake level

maximum daily intake of a nutrient that is unlikely to pose risk of adverse effects in healthy people

adequate intake

based on best estimate of need for nutrient

7th day adventist

lacto-ovovegetarians; pork avoided; no water with meals; no tea, coffee or alcohol; no overeating or snacking

roman catholics

no meat on Fridays during lent; no food or beverage for 1 hour before meal


no overeating; dietary laws are called hala and prohibited foods are haram; no alcohol


no alcoho, coffee, tea or caffeine; limit meal intake


no pork or shellfish; laws define how mammals and birds must be slaughtered to be eaten


lacto-vegetarians; no alcohol; no beef, pork or cow


lacto-ovovegetarians; no beef or poultry; monks fast at certain times

adequate nutrients within energy needs

choose a variety of nutrient-dense foods

weight management

maintain weight

physical activity

makes us healthy, physically and mentally

fruits, vegetables, grains and milk

food groups to encourage


"sugars" means natural/processed


consume less than 1 tsp. a day


saturated fast are unealthy


sensibly and in moderation

variety, activity, personalization, gradual improvement and moderation

MyPyramid Key Components

daily values

amount of fats, sodium, fiber and other nutrients that should make up a healthy diet; based on 2,000 calorie diet

calorie free

less than 5 calories per serving

low calorie

no more than 40 calories per serving


1/3 fewer calories or 1/2 fat of regular

reduced calories

contains at least 35% fewer calories than regular

fat free

less than .5 g of fat per serving

low fat

3g of fat or less per serving


low in fat, saturated fat and trans fat; no more than 60 mg of cholesterol per serving; provides 10% of vitamin a, c, protein, calcium, iron and fiber

health claim

links nutritional profile of a food to a reduced risk of a particular disease

structure function claim

made without FDA approval because they don't use actual disease name

low sodium

high blood pressure

saturated fat/cholesterol

heart disease




neural tube defects

sugar alcohols

tooth decay


don't have to have nutrition facts if: food is natural, made and sold in same store, less than 12 in2 packaging

discretionary calorie allowance

when you eat healthy and try to eat nutrient-dense foods, you may have these left over at the end of the day


all carbohydrates are composed of single sugars which are:

fructose, glucose and galactose

3 monosaccharides


2 single sugars joined together

lactose, maltose and sucrose

3 disaccharides


multiple sugars joined together

starch and fiber

2 polysaccharides

fats and oil

what are triglycerides made out of


what percent of triglycerides make up the lipids in our diets


what are phospholipids made out of


what are sterols made out of


what percent of lipids in our diets is made from phospholipids and sterols

amino acids

what are the building blocks of protein

nitrogen containing

what does amino mean?


how many amino acids make up the proteins of living tissues


proteins synthesized by condensation of amino acids to form ________ bonds

triglycerides, phospholipids and sterols

3 lipids

water soluble vitamins

found in water components of food; can easily be washed out or destroyed during storage, processing or preparation; only short term storage

fat soluble vitamins

found in fats and oils of food; stable in foods; stored in liver and body fats


water soluble vitamin that helps prevent neural tube defects


folate deficiency causes:


less than 18.5 BMI

normal (healthy) weight

between 18.5 and 24.9 BMI


between 25 and 29.9 BMI


between 30 and 30.9 BMI

extreme obesity

greater than 40 BMI

waist circumference ratios

men > 40 inches; women > 35 inches

waist-to-hip ratios

men >1; women >.8


how many calories make up 1 lb of fat

basal metabolic rate (BMR), diet-induced thermogenesis and physical activity

3 components of energy expenditure

basal metabolic rate

rate your body expends energy to support vital functions

diet-induced thermogenesis

production of heat that occurs after eating which helps you burn calories

physical activity

most variable part of energy expenditure equation; varies according to: body size, type of activity, volume/intensity of activity

factors that increase BMI

caffeine, fever, growth, height, high thyroid hormone, male gender, muscle mass, smoking and genes

factors that decrease BMI

age, low thyroid hormone, reduced energy intake, sleep

carbs - glucose - liver and muscle stores

overeating pattern of CHOs

fat - fatty acid - body fat stores

overeating pattern of fats

protein - amino acids - fat after losing nitrogen in urine

overeating pattern of protein


the storage compound is broken down in the body and then used for energy

liver and muscle stores - glucose - ENERGY

liver and muscle fasting pattern

body fat stores - fatty acid - ENERGY

fat fasting pattern

stomach and upper small intestine

where does alcohol absorption take place in the body


how much alcohol is stored in our body


____ have higher blood alcohol concentration levels after consuming the same amount of alcohol


women absorb ____ more alcohol

small amounts of water

higher alcohol concentration in women is because of...

functional tolerance

an actual change in sensitivity to a drug (ex: your body learns how to function with the alcohol in you)

metabolic tolerance

with continued exposure, alcohol is metabolized at a higher rate

benefits of drinking alcohol

1. rates of death lowest 2. can decrease incidence of heart disease

risks of drinking alcohol

accidents, drug interactions, night blindness, stroke, high blood pressure, brain damage, emotional and social problems, etc.


between 10% and 20% of the desirable weight for height; BMI of 25-29.9


20% or more above the desirable weight for height; BMI of 30 or higher


10% or less of the desirable weight for height; BMI of less than 18.5

weight (kg)/height (m2); 2.2 kg = 1 lb, 1 inch = 2.54 cm, 1 cm = .01 m

calculate BMI #1

[weight (lbs) / height (in2)] x 703

calculate BMI #2

folate, vitamin B12, vitamin C

3 water soluble vitamins

vitamin A, vitamin D

2 fat soluble vitamins

calcium, phosphorus

2 major minerals

iron, iodine

2 trace minerals

vitamin b12

water soluble vitamin; found in milk, meat, cheese and eggs; deficiency is unable to build red blood cells which leads to anemia

vitamin c

water soluble vitamin; found in broccoli, cantaloupe and strawberries; deficiencies are unlikely except in infants or elderly who don't get enough of this vitamin

vitamin a

fat soluble vitamin; found in bright green, yellow, orange, and red fruits/vegetables, milk, butter, cheese, eggs and liver; deficiency leads to night-blindness

beta carotene

an orange colored pigment found in plants that converts to vitamin A; little risk of toxicity when you take this supplement

vitamin d

fat soluble vitamin; found in liver, eggs, fish and milk; deficiencies can lead to osteomalacia and rickets

bone making

vitamin c has a major role in:


low intakes of folate, B12 and B6 are linked to heart disease because of increased...


inorganic compounds found naturally in the earth's crust

major minerals

an essential nutrient found in the human body in amounts greater than 5 grams; needed in large amounts

trace minerals

an essential nutrient found in the human body in amounts less than 5 grams; needed in small amounts

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