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227 terms

Nutrition Final

Contemporary Issues in Nutrition Professor Dority
dietary guidelines for americans
promotes good dietary habits
the amount of x to recommend to the public
estimated average requirement (ear)
amount of nutrient recommended to meet the requirement for a nutrient for half of the people of a specific group
the minimum amount of a nutrient that will prevent the development of deficiency symptoms
observational studies
observing what a person is doing (ex: food diary - having people keep track of what they eat)
may suggest cause and effect, but doesn't prove the problem
epidemiological studies
other name for observational studies
scientific method steps
1. observation and question; 2. hypothesis and prediction; 3. experiment; 4. results and interpretations; 5. theory or new observation/question
scientific method
the way scientists get from asking a question to finding an answer
recommended daily allowance
set to cover most healthy people (97-98%) of a specific age and gender
dietary reference intakes
nutrient density
trying to buy the most nutrients with the least amount of calories - ex: milk vs. orange juice vs. soda
adequacy, balance, calorie control, moderation and variety
diet planning principles (abcs)
making sure you're getting enough nutrients
not going overboard in 1 area
calorie control
maintain healthy weight for you
80, 20 rule
mix up your fruits and vegetables
the physiological need for food
the psychological desire to eat
who sets the serving size for nutrition fact panels
how many different items are required on the nutrition facts panel
social and cultural factors
reasons we make the food choices we do
any condition caused by excess, deficiency or imbalance of calories or nutrients
calorie or nutrient overcomsumption severe enough to cause disease or increased risk of disease
unit used to measure energy
how many calories per gram in carbs
how many calories per gram in proteins
how many calories per gram in fats
how many calories per gram in alcohol
find desirable weight for height; divide by 2.2; multiply by .8
calculating RDA for protein
essential nutrients
must be obtained from food because the body can't make them for itself
how many nutrients are essential
carbs, fat, protein, vitamins, minerals and water
the 6 nutrients
carbs, fat and protein
which 3 nutrients produce energy
vitamins, minerals and water
which 3 nutrients don't produce energy but we need them to help us function
double-blind experiment
both the researcher and subjects don't know who is in the experimental group and who is in the control group; don't know who is getting the treatment/placebo
blind experiment
the subjects don't find out until after the experiment if they were receiving the treatment or the placebo
control group
this group is receiving the placebo pill/not the treatment
experimental group
this group is receiving the treatment
picking people for the experimental and control groups without a bias
experimental studies
changing and measuring the conditions of someone's life/environment (ex: researches are intervening people's lives)
intervention studies
experimental studies are also known as
tolerable upper intake level
maximum daily intake of a nutrient that is unlikely to pose risk of adverse effects in healthy people
adequate intake
based on best estimate of need for nutrient
7th day adventist
lacto-ovovegetarians; pork avoided; no water with meals; no tea, coffee or alcohol; no overeating or snacking
roman catholics
no meat on Fridays during lent; no food or beverage for 1 hour before meal
no overeating; dietary laws are called hala and prohibited foods are haram; no alcohol
no alcoho, coffee, tea or caffeine; limit meal intake
no pork or shellfish; laws define how mammals and birds must be slaughtered to be eaten
lacto-vegetarians; no alcohol; no beef, pork or cow
lacto-ovovegetarians; no beef or poultry; monks fast at certain times
adequate nutrients within energy needs
choose a variety of nutrient-dense foods
weight management
maintain weight
physical activity
makes us healthy, physically and mentally
fruits, vegetables, grains and milk
food groups to encourage
"sugars" means natural/processed
consume less than 1 tsp. a day
saturated fast are unealthy
sensibly and in moderation
variety, activity, personalization, gradual improvement and moderation
MyPyramid Key Components
daily values
amount of fats, sodium, fiber and other nutrients that should make up a healthy diet; based on 2,000 calorie diet
calorie free
less than 5 calories per serving
low calorie
no more than 40 calories per serving
1/3 fewer calories or 1/2 fat of regular
reduced calories
contains at least 35% fewer calories than regular
fat free
less than .5 g of fat per serving
low fat
3g of fat or less per serving
low in fat, saturated fat and trans fat; no more than 60 mg of cholesterol per serving; provides 10% of vitamin a, c, protein, calcium, iron and fiber
health claim
links nutritional profile of a food to a reduced risk of a particular disease
structure function claim
made without FDA approval because they don't use actual disease name
low sodium
high blood pressure
saturated fat/cholesterol
heart disease
neural tube defects
sugar alcohols
tooth decay
don't have to have nutrition facts if: food is natural, made and sold in same store, less than 12 in2 packaging
discretionary calorie allowance
when you eat healthy and try to eat nutrient-dense foods, you may have these left over at the end of the day
all carbohydrates are composed of single sugars which are:
fructose, glucose and galactose
3 monosaccharides
2 single sugars joined together
lactose, maltose and sucrose
3 disaccharides
multiple sugars joined together
starch and fiber
2 polysaccharides
fats and oil
what are triglycerides made out of
what percent of triglycerides make up the lipids in our diets
what are phospholipids made out of
what are sterols made out of
what percent of lipids in our diets is made from phospholipids and sterols
amino acids
what are the building blocks of protein
nitrogen containing
what does amino mean?
how many amino acids make up the proteins of living tissues
proteins synthesized by condensation of amino acids to form ________ bonds
triglycerides, phospholipids and sterols
3 lipids
water soluble vitamins
found in water components of food; can easily be washed out or destroyed during storage, processing or preparation; only short term storage
fat soluble vitamins
found in fats and oils of food; stable in foods; stored in liver and body fats
water soluble vitamin that helps prevent neural tube defects
folate deficiency causes:
less than 18.5 BMI
normal (healthy) weight
between 18.5 and 24.9 BMI
between 25 and 29.9 BMI
between 30 and 30.9 BMI
extreme obesity
greater than 40 BMI
waist circumference ratios
men > 40 inches; women > 35 inches
waist-to-hip ratios
men >1; women >.8
how many calories make up 1 lb of fat
basal metabolic rate (BMR), diet-induced thermogenesis and physical activity
3 components of energy expenditure
basal metabolic rate
rate your body expends energy to support vital functions
diet-induced thermogenesis
production of heat that occurs after eating which helps you burn calories
physical activity
most variable part of energy expenditure equation; varies according to: body size, type of activity, volume/intensity of activity
factors that increase BMI
caffeine, fever, growth, height, high thyroid hormone, male gender, muscle mass, smoking and genes
factors that decrease BMI
age, low thyroid hormone, reduced energy intake, sleep
carbs - glucose - liver and muscle stores
overeating pattern of CHOs
fat - fatty acid - body fat stores
overeating pattern of fats
protein - amino acids - fat after losing nitrogen in urine
overeating pattern of protein
the storage compound is broken down in the body and then used for energy
liver and muscle stores - glucose - ENERGY
liver and muscle fasting pattern
body fat stores - fatty acid - ENERGY
fat fasting pattern
stomach and upper small intestine
where does alcohol absorption take place in the body
how much alcohol is stored in our body
____ have higher blood alcohol concentration levels after consuming the same amount of alcohol
women absorb ____ more alcohol
small amounts of water
higher alcohol concentration in women is because of...
functional tolerance
an actual change in sensitivity to a drug (ex: your body learns how to function with the alcohol in you)
metabolic tolerance
with continued exposure, alcohol is metabolized at a higher rate
benefits of drinking alcohol
1. rates of death lowest 2. can decrease incidence of heart disease
risks of drinking alcohol
accidents, drug interactions, night blindness, stroke, high blood pressure, brain damage, emotional and social problems, etc.
between 10% and 20% of the desirable weight for height; BMI of 25-29.9
20% or more above the desirable weight for height; BMI of 30 or higher
10% or less of the desirable weight for height; BMI of less than 18.5
weight (kg)/height (m2); 2.2 kg = 1 lb, 1 inch = 2.54 cm, 1 cm = .01 m
calculate BMI #1
[weight (lbs) / height (in2)] x 703
calculate BMI #2
folate, vitamin B12, vitamin C
3 water soluble vitamins
vitamin A, vitamin D
2 fat soluble vitamins
calcium, phosphorus
2 major minerals
iron, iodine
2 trace minerals
vitamin b12
water soluble vitamin; found in milk, meat, cheese and eggs; deficiency is unable to build red blood cells which leads to anemia
vitamin c
water soluble vitamin; found in broccoli, cantaloupe and strawberries; deficiencies are unlikely except in infants or elderly who don't get enough of this vitamin
vitamin a
fat soluble vitamin; found in bright green, yellow, orange, and red fruits/vegetables, milk, butter, cheese, eggs and liver; deficiency leads to night-blindness
beta carotene
an orange colored pigment found in plants that converts to vitamin A; little risk of toxicity when you take this supplement
vitamin d
fat soluble vitamin; found in liver, eggs, fish and milk; deficiencies can lead to osteomalacia and rickets
bone making
vitamin c has a major role in:
low intakes of folate, B12 and B6 are linked to heart disease because of increased...
inorganic compounds found naturally in the earth's crust
major minerals
an essential nutrient found in the human body in amounts greater than 5 grams; needed in large amounts
trace minerals
an essential nutrient found in the human body in amounts less than 5 grams; needed in small amounts
most abundant mineral in the body; found in milk and milk products, green vegetables, few fish and shellfish; deficiency through the years can lead to osteoporosis
2nd most abundant mineral in the body; found in animal protein and carbonated beverages; higher intakes than recommended can interfere with calcium absorption
oxygen carrier; found in meats, poultry and fish; deficiency can lead to anemia
heme iron
which iron is more readily absorbed (heme vs. nonheme iron)
regulates body temperature, metabolic rate, reproduction and growth; found in salts to prevent deficiencies; deficiency can lead to cretinism and goiters
nonnutritive substances found in plants that posses health protective benefits; act as antioxidants that lower blood pressure and cholesterol
found in tomato products; may reduce the risk of prostate and other cancers
found in grapes, red/white wine and tea; act as antioxidants
functional foods
foods that provide additional physiological and psychological benefit beyond that of meeting basic nutritional needs
essential compounds that perform various bodily functions that promote growth and reproduction
small intestine (portal vein) into liver; alcohol dehydrogenases and turns into acetylaldehyde + H2O; the acetone turns into CO2 + H2O
break down of alcohol in the body
foodborne illness
illness occurring as a result of ingesting food or water contaminated with a poisonous substance
food intoxication
foodborne illness caused by a toxin or chemical
harms the nervous system (intoxication)
harms the mucous membranes (intoxication)
foodborne infection
caused by live bacteria, virus or parasites
excreted in feces; found in raw/undercooked eggs, meat, poultry, dairy; onset is 6-48 hours
consumption of raw milk, contaimnated water, undercooked chicken, beef, pork, raw clams; onset is 2-5 days and lasts 7-10 days
found in feces; undercooked hamburger, raw milk, raw apple cider, water, mayo, vegetables; onset is 12-72 hours
toxin produced when food is left out too long at room temperature; not destroyed by cooking
spore forming organism; low acid canned foods; destroyed by boiling for 20 minutes
good hand washing practices
at least 20 seconds with hot soapy water; all the way up to your elbows
40-140 degrees (Fahrenheit)
food danger zone
medium rare beef
145 degrees cooking temp
ground beef
160 degrees cooking temp
ground poultry
165 degrees cooking temp
well done beef
170 degrees cooking temp
whole chicken
180 degrees cooking temp
substances used to prevent, destroy or repel harmful pests
ideal pesticides
destroys the target pest and then breaks down quickly into harmless products
food additives
any substance added to food including substances used in production, processing, treatment, packaging, transportation or storage
flavor, color, texture, stability or nutritional content
food additives enhance:
substances generally recognized as safe
list of ingredients, established by the FDA, that has long been in use
process of exposing a substance to low doses of radiation, using gamma rays, x-rays or electricity to kill insects, bacteria and other potentially harmful microorganisms
genetic engineering
use of biotechnology to alter the genes of a plant in an effort to create a new plant with different traits
unknown consequences and controversy over labeling
risks of genetic engineering
can be used to boost nutritional value
benefit of genetic engineering
organic foods
crops or livestock grown and processed according to USDA regulations concerning use of pesticides, herbicides, etc.
raw foods
must be 100% organic to be labeled
processed foods
must be 95% organic to be labeled
product made with organic ingredients
must be 70-95% organic to read this
these products can't be organic
food security
having enough food at all times for an active healthy life
food insecurity
inability to acquire or consume enough food in socially acceptable ways; uncertainty that one will be able to do so
main cause of food insecurity in the US?
mouth - digestion process
some hard fats begin to melt; salivary glands secrete watery fluid that contains amylase to being CHO digestion; chewing softens protein rich foods and mixes them with saliva
stomach - digestion process
churning action mixes fat with stomach acid; acid denatures protein strand and activates pepsin to break protein strands into dipeptides, tripeptides and polypeptides; some alcohol absorption occurs here
pancreas - digestion process
produces enzymes that break down polysaccharides into disaccharides; produces proteases which enter the small intestine that breakdown peptides into amino acids
small intestine - digestion process
enzymes produced on the surface break disaccharides into monosaccharides; liver makes bile stored in gallbladder, emulsifies fat, allows for fat absorption
liver - digestion process
monosaccharides travel here and are all converted to glucose; makes bile stored in gallbladder, released into small intestine; alcohol is metabolized here
large intestine - digestion process
most fiber passes through the digestive tract and is excreted in feces; some fat and cholesterol trapped by fiber is excreted in feces; carries any undigested protein out of the body
mouth (salivary glands and amylase) - pancreas - small intestine - liver (glucose) - large intestine - out
digestion process of carbs
mouth - stomach acid (pepsin) - small intestine - proteases (small intestine and pancreas enzyme) - peptidases (surface enzymes) - large intestine - out
digestion process of protein
mouth - stomach (lipase) - liver - gallbladder - small intestine - pancreas (pancreatic lipase)
digestion of lipids
high blood glucose
extra glucose converts to glucogen or body fat
low blood glucose
glucose released from glucogen stores
too much glucose in the body; hormone released to signal high glucose levels
not enough glucose in the body; hormone released that signals liver to release glucose
abnormally high blood glucose concentration
abnormally low blood glucose concentration
<20, >40, pregnancy
ages for type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes
no, yes (ineffective), yes (ineffective)
is insulin produced in type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes
genetics, allergy, virus
cause of type 1 diabetes
genetic predisposition + obesity and family history
cause of type 2 diabetes
cause of gestational diabetes
diet, insulin and exercise
what 3 things are usually the treatment for different kinds of diabetes
brand name for acesulfame k
brand name for aspartame
sweet n low
brand name for saccharin
brand name for sucralose
linoleic (omega 6) and linolenic (omega 3)
2 essential fatty acids
water soluble; fat soluble
phospholipids have a ________ head and a __________ tail
carries fat made in liver to various blood tissues
what does VLDL do?
carries cholesterol to body cells
what does LDL do?
carries cholesterol in the blood back to the liver for recycling
what does the HDL do?
olean and olestra
what are the 2 fat based fat substitutes
sucrose and fatty acids
what are fat substitutes made out of