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The Empires of Persia

Chapter 7 of Bentley's Traditions and Encounters.
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Achaemenid empire
Lasted 558-330 BCE. It was the first Persian empire and its capital was Persepolis.
Cyrus
He became king of the Persian tribes in 558 BCE. By 548 BCE all of Iran was under his control. He established the Achaemenid empire and it stretched from India to Egypt's borders. Reigned 558-530 BCE.
Cambyses
He was Cyrus's son. He reigned 530-522 BCE. He conquered Egypt.
Darius
He reigned 521-486 BCE. He built roads, established a postal system, and standardized weights, measures, and money. He also replaced irregular tribute payments with formal taxes.
Achaemenid administration
23 satrapies were appointed by the central government. The local officials came from the local population. The satraps' power was checked by military officers and "imperial spies".
Xerxes
Reigned 486-465 BCE. He retreated from the policy of cultural toleration and caused ill will and rebellions among the peoples in Mesopotamia and Egypt.
Persian Wars
Took place 500-479 BCE. It involved the rebellion of the Ionian Greeks.
Alexander of Macedon
He invaded Persia in 334 BCE. He caused the end of the Achaemenid empire and burned the city of Persepolis.
Battle of Guagamela
Took place 331 BCE. This is when the Achaemenid empire ended.
Seleucid empire
It retained the Achaemenid system of administration. It lost control over India and Iran because of opposition from native Persians.
Parthian empire
It was based in Iran and extended to Mesopotamia. It had a heavy calvary. Its government also followed Achaemenid administration.
Mithradates I
He established an empire through conquests from 171-155 BCE.
Qanat
Underground canals
Zarathustra
He founded Zoroastrianism.
Ahura Mazda
The good supreme god in Zoroastrianism.
Gathas
Zarathustra's hymns in honor of deities
Magi
They were Zoroastrian priests. They preserved Zarathustra's teachings in writing.
Avesta
The Zoroastrian holy scriptures that were compiled under the Sasanid dynasty
Sasanid empire
They were from Persia. They toppled the Parthians and ruled 224-651 BCE. Their merchants brought in various crops from India and China. It officially sponsored Zoroastrianism. In 651 CE it was incorporated into the Islamic empire.
Shapur I
He ruled the Sasanid empire from 239-272 BCE. During this time they had buffer states with the Romans and a conflict with Kushan weakened the empire.
Ctesiphan
The capital of the Sasanid empire
Angra Mainyu
The evil being in Zoroastrianism.
Zoroastrian moral formula
"Good words, good thoughts, good deeds."
Zoroastrianism
This religion attracted Persian aristocrats and the ruling elites, including Darius. It was most popular in Iran, and there were followings in Mesopotamia, Anatolia, Egypt, and other places.